William Thomas

willthomasonline.net exclusive

“Nuclear, nuclear, nuclear. The word has been around for decades, and for the longest time, was at the center of American foreign policy and the deepest fears of the American people. Nuclear brinkmanship. Nuclear winter. Nuclear holocaust. Etc. It’s a great, big, fat, important, and serious word. Its very existence has changed the face of the planet.” -William Rivers Pitt [truthout.com May 5/06]



Despite a just-released U.S. national intelligence consensus that Iran is not developing nuclear weapons, apocalyptic fundamentalists George Bush and Dick Cheney remain intent on ordering an all-out attack against one of the world’s oldest (and best armed) civilizations. As governments and citizenry protest this folly, an overriding question torments many minds: Will the architects of more than one-million civilian corpses in Iraq choose to go “go nuclear” against Iran?

Many believe they will not dare. If the inhibition against killing is one of the strongest human impulses (just ask a returning veteran), the ethical revulsion and international prohibitions against using nuclear weapons seem strong enough to rule out their first aggressive use since America’s atomic attack on Nagasaki.

But what if the post-WWII nuclear Rubicon has already been crossed? According to a U.S. Army veteran with extensive boots-on-the-ground connections, the United States Government has dropped five nuclear weapons on Afghanistan and Iraq.

And gotten away with it.

Shortly after the terror attacks of 9/11, Lt. Colonel Eric Sepp of the USAF Air War College lamented that going after Osama bin Laden’s granite redoubts in the Tora Bora region of Afghanistan presented “one of the more difficult operational challenges to confront U.S. military forces.”

While precision-guided weapons doom above-ground buildings (and any civilians inside or nearby), deeply buried bunkers can be used as “an effective sanctuary,” declared the USAF Air War College, “to manufacture and store weapons of mass destruction.” As the Air Force Times pointed out, Osama’s “difficult to locate” mountain bunkers “are often beyond the reach of most conventional weapons unable to survive passing through tens of meters of rock and concrete.” [Deeply Buried Facilities Implications for Military Operations USAF Center for Strategy and Technology Air War College May 2000; Air Force Times Apr 14/97]

But it wasn’t for lack of trying. In 1972, Melvin Cook, a professor of metallurgy at the University of Utah and an author of works on explosives and Creationism, had sought to undo God’s handiwork by developing the ultimate chemical bomb. Professor Cook borrowed aluminized slurries used in mining to fracture, heat and pulverize extremely hard rock.
[workingforchange.com Nov 8/01; globalsecurity.org]

Extensively field tested during the Vietnam War, where they raised havoc with the peoples and ecology of Vietnam and Cambodia – and later deployed against terrified Iraqi conscripts and cast-off Soviet armor during the 1991 Gulf war – giant 15,000 pound BLU-82 bombs dubbed “Daisy-Cutters” were next dropped in pallets rolled out the back of C-130 transport planes to seal cave entrances in Tora Bora.

London Daily Mail reporter David Williams witnessed one of those “Daisy Cutter” attacks: “The sound split the air. It was like a thunder clap directly overhead at the height of a ferocious storm. I could see the massive oily black cloud of the explosion as it rolled across the hillside, a mixture of thick smoke, chunks of earth and debris.” [www.workingforchange.com Nov 8/01; http://www.commondreams.org]

“The effect of the BLU-82 is astonishing, and rare film shows a detonation, shock wave and subsequent mushroom cloud very similar to a small nuclear weapon,” writes Paul Rogers in The Mother Of All Bombs. “Journalists who visited areas where the bomb had been dropped reported scenes of extraordinary devastation” from a firestorm that sucked all the oxygen from the air, crushed human organs and incinerated an area the size of five football fields in a single mighty blast. [openDemocracy.net Mar 7/03]

By December 13, 2001 the U.S. Air Force had dropped at least four 17-foot-long “Daisy Cutter” bombs on tunnel complexes and Taliban concentrations in Afghanistan. [globalsecurity.org; commondreams.org]

They also began dropping two-and-a-half-ton GBU-28 “dense metal” penetrators from B-52s and B-1 Stealth bombers. Exploding deep underground, the bomb’s explosive energy “coupled” with bedrock under immense pressure from the weight bearing down on it. The resulting seismic shock wave could crush an underground bunker – or the internal organs of anyone caught in the “overpressure” from a blast wave 20-times stronger than the bomb blast itself.
[ucsusa.org May/05]

In order to penetrate rock and concrete, each “Great Big Uranium” bomb is shaped like a spear tipped with tons of radioactive Uranium-238 nearly twice as dense as lead. Using nuclear waste left over from making atomic bombs and reactor fuel, the amount of radioactive Depleted Uranium (DU) particles spread by each GBU “dirty bomb” eclipsed any terrorist’s fantasy – one-and-a-half metric tons of aerosolized particles capable of causing genetic mutations and death for the next four billion years!
[Le Monde March 2002]

The similarities of BLU and GBU detonations to nuclear blasts was not lost on U.S. war planners, who realized that the blast effects and resulting radioactive fallout from conventional bunker-busters could mask the detonation of so-called “low-yield” B61-11 tactical nuclear bombs.

The Bush administration’s first U.S. Nuclear Posture Review had already called for fast-track development of new tactical nuclear weapons, a resumption of nuclear tests, and more “flexible, adaptable strike plans” – including “options for variable and reduced yields.” Submitted to Congress on December 31, 2001, the neocon’s follow-up CONPLAN 8022 would reverse the decades-old U.S. policy against “first use” of nuclear weapons by authorizing their rapid deployment to destroy ‘time-urgent targets’ anywhere in the world. [ People’s Weekly World Newspaper Mar 16/02]

As the Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists jumped the minute hand of their Doomsday Clock forward two minutes to seven minutes to midnight, White House fundamentalists eagerly sought ways to test their new “baby nukes” against real-world targets. Proponents insisted, “Many buried targets could be attacked using a weapon with a much lower yield than would be required with a surface burst.”
[smh.com.au Sept 7/02]

Those buried nuclear targets were specifically located in Afghanistan and Iraq.

As Dr. Mohammed Daud Miraki of the Afghan DU & Recovery Fund observed, “The White House and US-DOD spoke frequently about the development and use of fission, low-yield and non-fission, seismic bunker- and cave-busters,” “The US Strategic Military Plan and US Nuclear Posture Review expresses intentions to use new classes of weapons in Afghanistan and other states. This program was known to be accelerating its weapons development and experiments in readiness for a possible Iraqi incursion.” [Afghan DU & Recovery Fund]

Soon after commencing aerial bombardment against Afghanistan, Secretary of Defence Donald Rumsfeld told the press “he did not rule out the eventual use of nuclear weapons.”
[Houston Chronicle Oct 20/01]

Still reeling from the relentlessly televised images of September 11, the American public was told that only nuclear blasts could safely vaporize caches of chemical, nuclear or biological weapons not authorized by Washington, which retained its own banned stockpiles of biological weapons, along with more than five-thousand nuclear warheads. [AP June 11/07]

As I was told by an extremely well-connected Desert Storm veteran, whom I have to call “Hank” during our 15-year collaboration, pursuing al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters across Afghanistan’s “wide flat open spaces” is like target shooting. But the “hills that crop out of nowhere” in this desolate region “are craggy and rocky with holes in them that we can’t detect. We know they had access to the Russian biologicals. They could have it in the cave. The container could be open…”

For this reason, “in caves 75 to 89 percent of the time, our guys are wearing an NBC (Nuclear, Chemical, Biological) suit as a precaution,” he went on. “You never know what these guys might have in there – Taliban and Al Qaeda. We knew categorically that they had captured a lot of Soviet munitions, so we knew that whatever these guys fielded they captured: last ditch stuff.”

But blowing up chemical-biological munitions is a really bad idea – as Hank and other coalition forces posted downwind of Iraq’s detonated CBW stockpiles at Khamisiyah learned to their cost following the first Persian Gulf War. As Benjamin Phelan pointed out in Harper’s, “A well-designed granite bunker could with-stand four times the shock produced by [a conventional bunker buster]. If the bunker housed weapons of mass destruction, studies have shown that a canister of, say, mustard gas could be insulated from the heat of the blast by a few meters of earth, and thereby escape being vaporized… In the likely event that a canister is ruptured but not destroyed, the chemical agent… would be blasted up into the air, carried away in the fallout cloud.” [Harper’s Dec 1/04]

Another risk, Hank cautioned, “If you nuke something that’s already [fissionable], you’ll get a cook off you didn’t expect.” Even doing “a flash bang” over stockpiled yellow cake, or Depleted Uranium debris “could cause those pieces to reciprocate” by absorbing and then reflecting incoming Alpha, Beta, Delta, Gamma and X-rays from a supposedly low-yield detonation.

Risks are compounded when countries facing America’s willingness to use nuclear weapons against them respond by developing their own 4th generation, low-yield nuclear bombs. “The concern is that countries are starting to see these weapons as useable, whereas during the Cold War they were seen as a deterrent,” warns Ian Anthony, a nuclear expert at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. [AP June 11/07]

Recognizing that “low-yield nuclear weapons blur the distinction between nuclear and conventional war,” a 1994 law banned research and development on nuclear weapons of less than 5-kilotons in the United States.

But Bush’s 2001 Defense Authorization Bill passed by a Republican Congress overturned these earlier restrictions. Just as “Little Boy” and “Fat Man” were rushed to the Pacific Theater in time to be tested on the starving Japanese citizenry before the emperor’s surrender pleas leaked to the press, the nuclear version of the bunker-busting GBU-28 was rushed to Afghanistan to conduct remote field tests before the Taliban surrendered.

The nuclear version of the GBU-28 bunker buster is the B61-11. When American forces targeted Tora Bora in 2001, there were 150 B61-11s in the U.S. arsenal. Featuring nuclear warheads that could be dialed from 0.3 to 340 kilotons – equivalent of 300 to 340,000 tons of radioactive TNT – these new Earth Penetrating Weapons were, according to atomic scientists, capable of “destroying the deepest and most hardened of underground bunkers, which the conventional warheads are not capable of doing.”
[Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists May/June 1997; Wired Oct 8/01]

“When a bunker buster burrows in, the blast is directed downward,” Hank explained. “It’s a lens and it’s focused straight down instead of outward.”

Designed to penetrate deep into the earth before detonating, the shaped warhead directs a blast hotter than a thousand suns in a shock-coupled seismic shockwave that shakes several hundred meters of bedrock. “Even a short penetration distance accomplishes this goal of ‘coupling’ the energy of the explosion to the ground,” notes the Union of Concerned Scientists. ”Penetration of a few meters increases the underground destructive effects by more than a factor of twenty.” [Defense News Mar 2/97; [ucsusa.org May/05]

Stripping away the numbers, Hank summarized the effects of dropping an earth-penetrating nuclear bomb with typical GI directness: “Do an overpressure wave in a cave, everything in there is squished.”

With the resulting hard radiation supposedly sequestered underground, the 1,200-pound B61 was enthusiastically hailed by Bush and his backers as a “relatively safe” atomic bomb that would not kill too many innocent bystanders. [Philadelphia Inquirer Oct 16/00]

Or freak out the world.

The nuclear version of the GBU-28 bunker buster is the B61-11. When American forces targeted Tora Bora in 2001, there were 150 B61-11s in the U.S. arsenal. Featuring nuclear warheads that could be dialed from 0.3 to 340 kilotons – equivalent of 300 to 340,000 tons of radioactive TNT – these new Earth Penetrating Weapons were, according to atomic scientists, capable of “destroying the deepest and most hardened of underground bunkers, which the conventional warheads are not capable of doing.”
[Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists May/June 1997; Wired Oct 8/01]

“When a bunker buster burrows in, the blast is directed downward,” Hank explained. “It’s a lens and it’s focused straight down instead of outward.”

Designed to penetrate deep into the earth before detonating, the shaped warhead directs a blast hotter than a thousand suns in a shock-coupled seismic shockwave that shakes several hundred meters of bedrock. “Even a short penetration distance accomplishes this goal of ‘coupling’ the energy of the explosion to the ground,” notes the Union of Concerned Scientists. ”Penetration of a few meters increases the underground destructive effects by more than a factor of twenty.” [Defense News Mar 2/97; [ucsusa.org May/05]

Stripping away the numbers, Hank summarized the effects of dropping an earth-penetrating nuclear bomb with typical GI directness: “Do an overpressure wave in a cave, everything in there is squished.”

With the resulting hard radiation supposedly sequestered underground, the 1,200-pound B61 was enthusiastically hailed by Bush and his backers as a “relatively safe” atomic bomb that would not kill too many innocent bystanders. [Philadelphia Inquirer Oct 16/00]

Or freak out the world.

Nuclear explosions are also handy for locating buried bunkers. Ground Penetrating Radar can “see” through only about 15 feet of sand. But in a process called “echo-ranging”, oil prospectors hoping to detect underground deposits at depths greater than 300-feet routinely bounce shockwaves from small explosions to reveal underground objects and cavities. Recorded by sensors fitted with precise Global Positioning Satellite locators, reverberating echoes can be computer-plotted to create precise, three-dimensional maps of deeply buried features, similar to a submarine “pinging” a target.
[USAF Air War College May 2000]

Except in this case, each “ping” is a nuclear detonation.

“You get a 3-D map of the area,” Hank confirmed. After a nuclear blast “rings the mountains like a bell, you know where the holes are; where the people are.”

But the air force was worried. In June 2001, its study on using even the smallest nuclear bombs concluded: “The political repercussions of employing nuclear weapon may be greater than the United States would want to contemplate, and the environmental consequences of potentially spreading a warehouse full of potentially deadly biological or chemical agents would be unacceptable.”
[USAF Air War College May 2000]

The political fallout could be as bad as the “large area of lethal fallout” scientists warned would follow ” the large amount of radioactive dirt thrown out in the explosion” from a weapon as “small” as 5-kilotons.
[Philadelphia Inquirer Oct 16/00]

This dust would be deadly. In Yugoslavia, where 30,000 radioactive uranium projectiles fired by NATO warplanes had released thousands of tons of easily inhaled or ingested microscopic particles, medical doctors were already reporting “multiple unrelated cancers” in families with no previous history of cancer, who lived in highly contaminated areas.

A previously unknown phenomenon, these “very rare and unusual cancers and birth defects have also been reported to be increasing, not only in war torn countries, but also in neighbouring countries from transboundary contamination,” the European Parliament found. [ Global Research July 8/04; American Free Press Aug 27/04; European Parliament Verbatim Report of Proceedings Apr 9/02; Bundesforschungsanstalt für Landwirtschaft Nov 8/05]

The tonnages of radioactive Uranium-238 and toxic heavy metals detonated in hundreds of cruise missiles fired into neighborhoods in Afghanistan and Iraq was never tabulated. But after conducting extensive research on DU weapons, former Naval officer Daniel Fahey declared, “You’re talking about something that should be stored as a radioactive waste, and [instead they’re] spreading it around other countries.
[Mother Jones June 23/99]

Just as veterans of Desert Storm came to call their mysterious maladies “Gulf War Syndrome,” soldiers posted to Bosnia and Kosovo in the 1990s began referring to the “Balkans Syndrome.” By January 2001, more than a quarter of the more than 1,400 Greek troops stationed in Kosovo were demanding to depart due to the increased risk of cancer.

United States law and U.S. Army Regulations AR 700-48 and TB 9-1300-278 require the army to “Clean and Treat” all persons affected and all areas contaminated by the radioactive uranium munitions. But Lt. Col. Mike Milord confirmed that the Pentagon had zero plans to clean up radioactive contamination in Kosovo – or anywhere else
. [Vanity Fair Nov/04; Daily Telegraph Jan 15/01]

The ability of Depleted Uranium missiles and shells to burn through the densest concrete and armor made these weapons too useful to give up. DU attacks could also be used to mask the cancers and leukemia incurred downwind of a low-yield nuclear detonation.

If the “Depleted Uranium explanation” somehow failed in the Tora Bora region, Hank told me, “we could blame radiation on the terrorists.”

Why not? The United States of America had already dropped a nuclear bomb on Iraq.

Photo Captions/Credits

Part 1
1. B2 drops B61-11 nuclear bomb casing wired.com
2. Daisy Cutter nd.edu


Part II: Sleight Of Nuke

willthomasonline.net exclusive

Founded by Caliph Omar in 636 AD, the ancient city of Basra stands astride the main road into Iran. In early 1991, the fabled home of Sinbad the Sailor was targeted by American commanders keen to stop a stream of WMD slipping over that border into Iran.

Armed with chemical agents delivered by Hussein Kemal Hassan, a dissident Shiite commander in Saddam Hussein’s Sunni-led army, as well as the computer software and “yellow cake” needed to enhance its nuclear weapons program, Iran could ruin the Pentagon’s plans for a mechanized blitzkrieg if Teheran decided to intervene. [answers.com ; Bringing The War Home by William Thomas ]

As Saddam’s trusted military-industrial chief, Kamal had no trouble ordering a convoy of six military transport trucks loaded with “yellow cake” at the heavily guarded al-Jesira factory near Mosul. Mined nearby, yellow cake is used in the difficult technical task of turning low-grade uranium into highly enriched, weapons-grade material.

Also included in this first clandestine WMD transfer to Iran were an advanced Hewlett Packard computer and a Linatron X-ray machines used to manufacture nuclear weapons.

Traveling blacked out, the nighttime convoy comprising two red-and-white Scania transport vans, two orange-and-red Scanias, an orange 1975 MAC truck and a brown-and- white Volvo truck wended south to a second loading dock in Baghdad before proceeding to the Iranian border, where civilian Iranian drivers and trucks were waiting.

According to a U.S. intelligence report declassified in May 1995, the Iranians drove their cargo to the town of Hamadan, where Revolutionary Guards took over the convoy. Following the road between the towns of Shariyar and Robate Karim, the Guards delivered their special freight to the Shahid Mostafa Khomeini Revolutionary Corps Barracks at Pasdaran, located roughly 30 kilometers southwest of Teheran. Used by the Guards as a military training facility, the barracks included storage rooms and warehouses.

The yellow cake was sent on to the Fasa/Rudan Research Center to manufacture enriched uranium fuel rods for civilian reactors.

Or nuclear bombs.

A follow-up convoy consisting of two Volvos, two Scanias and a Mac truck also transferred chemical-bioweapons materials into Iran. [SUBJ: “TRANSFER OF NUCLEAR, BIOLOGICAL, AND CHEMICAL (NBC) MATERIEL DURING DESERT STORM” U.S. Defense Department Report: IIR 2 201 0744 91/Filename:22010744.91rMessage SERIAL: (U) IIR 2 201 0744 91]

Alarmed by IIR 2 201 0744 91 and similar intelligence reports, U.S. military commanders placed high priority on interdicting this clandestine WMD supply route, while serving notice on the mullahs in Teheran not to interfere with the coming U.S. attacks on their Shiite brethren in Iraq.

Would fuel-air bombs achieve both mission objectives? As a bonus, the giant BLU-82s could be used to clear Iraqi minefields and intimidate terrified barefoot conscripts into surrendering. When General Schwarzkopf suggested using BLUs, Colonel George Gray, Commander of the 1st Special Operations Wing enthused, “Everybody within three miles of the drop will be bleeding from every orifice of his body.”

General Calvin Waller reportedly ad-libbed with a big grin, “Oh God, how many do we have?”

At least 11 BLU-82s would be dropped on Iraqi positions. [psywarrior.com]

Hank was with the American invasion force heading into Kuwait. “Our guys got told left and right that if things got a little cranky and stupid, we could end up in a short shooting war – but we had a bigger bullet. We had stuff that could come off the navy ships or could be dropped,” he said.

That “stuff” he later learned, included a “Klick 5” – a 5-kiloton nuclear bomb.

Interdicting WMD shipments and intimidating Teheran with a nuclear attack on the main road passing from Basra into Iran seemed like a perfect field test for America’s new generation of nuclear weapons. The Electromagnetic Pulse resulting from an underground nuclear blast would also fry the local electrical grid, creating a “blind zone” in Iraq’s key southern defenses.

As Hank explained the Pentagon’s strategy: “You have to do it where you can get away with it. It has to be something out in the hinterlands, and still be worth being discovered [by Teheran]. Baghdad – nooo. Salman Pak producing and storing biological stuff – nooo. Basra, which was the direct [WMD] pipeline between Iran and Iraq – yeah!

“This was a really good spot to make a point to everybody, far enough from Saddam that he would not respond with NBC,” Hank continued, referring to known stocks of Nuclear, Biological and Chemical weapons or materials the dictator had received from the United States.

The message to Teheran would be equally clear: “If we see a human-wave, or even a Ryder truck coming our way, this is what you’re going to get,” Hank noted. “Carry on cranky, and we’re going to give you a really bad day.”

Still, it was risky. If Saddam learned that a nuclear attack had taken place, he might respond by blowing up the key Darbandikhan dam located near the ill-fated town of Halabja. If he did, Israel would go thirsty. And U.S. forces would need rubber rafts if they chose to occupy Baghdad.

Who gave the order to go nuclear?

Under the Doctrine for Joint Nuclear Operations issued by the Joint Chiefs of Staff in 1995, using nuclear weapons preemptively against weapons of mass destruction or “to demonstrate U.S. intent and capability to use nuclear weapons to deter adversary use of WMD” must first be authorized by the National Command Authority. The NCA is comprised of two individuals: the Secretary of Defense and the President.

Rumsfeld, Cheney and other war planners “were taking a heckuva chance,” Hank charged. If those truckloads of yellow cake were “excited” by a nearby nuclear detonation – or if a rumored “way station” laboratory really was in the Basra area – the resulting blast could be amplified beyond “low-yield”.

“Can you say cook-off?” Hank asked.

As a preliminary to the first nuclear attack since the incineration of Nagasaki, at least one 15,000 pound fuel-air bomb was dropped in the Basra district on February 7, 1991. The resulting fireball covered two square miles. Outside the blast zone, oxygen consumed by what was essentially a gigantic gas explosion collapsed the lungs of all living creatures.
One website warned: “Usage of the BLU-82 is the precursor to the next weapon that may be used… the bunker-busting nuclear weapons.”

Around this time, a British Special Air Service (SAS) team on a secret reconnaissance mission sighted a signature mushroom cloud from 110 miles away. The commandos radioed back to headquarters, “Sir, the blokes have just nuked Kuwait.”
[indymedia.nl; psywarrior.com]

unker-busting nuclear weapons.” [casi.org.uk]

Around this time, a British Special Air Service (SAS) team on a secret reconnaissance mission sighted a signature mushroom cloud from 110 miles away. The commandos radioed back to headquarters, “Sir, the blokes have just nuked Kuwait.”
[indymedia.nl; psywarrior.com]

In fact, the blokes had just nuked Iraq. According to U.S. military sources, the first detonation of a nuclear weapon against another country since 1945 took place approximately 11 miles east of Basra, sometime between February 2 and February 5, 1991.

By then, Iraq’s former capitol had been declared a “free fire zone” – open to carpet-bombing by high-flying formations of eight-engine B-52s. “Basra is a military town in the true sense,” military spokesman General Richard Neal told the press. “The infrastructure, military infrastructure, is closely interwoven within the city of Basra itself.”

Though the soon-to-be fired General Neal claimed there were no civilians left in Basra, the city was actually sheltering some 800,000 terrified residents. In direct violation of Article 51 of the Geneva Protocols, which prohibits area bombing, the B-52s commenced saturation grid-bombing of the city. Mixing fuel-air bombs with shrapnel-spraying cluster bombs, the bombers leveled entire city blocks, the Los Angeles Times reported, leaving “bomb craters the size of football fields, and an untold number of casualties.” [Washington Post Feb 2/91; Los Angeles Times Feb 5/91]

With the city of Basra resounding to gigantic explosions, and engulfed in “a hellish nighttime of fires and smoke so dense that witnesses say the sun hasn’t been clearly visible for several days at a time,” a 5-kiloton GB-400 nuclear bomb exploding 11 miles away under the desert attracted no notice. [deoxy.org; Los Angeles Times Feb 5/91]

According to Hank’s GI informants, about “400 to 500 meters” of terrain were “cleaned out” of any bystanders and vehicles. The seismic disturbance radiating out a half mile to a mile from ground zero was “pretty devastating,” Hank learned. Besides flipping vehicles over, causing alarms to go off, and knocking people off their feet at that distance, the earth-shaking blast detonated every mine in the area.

Regarding Washington’s intent to halt the WMD transfers and deter Iran – “It made their point,” he says.

At the time of the subsurface detonation in hard-packed sand, Iraq’s sharkay daytime wind was blowing from northwest to southeast, away from Basra toward Iran. But the shamal shifts 180-degrees during the night, “so everybody gets a taste,” as Hank put it. “We had FOX [NBC ‘sniffer’] vehicles sitting on the Kuwaiti side of the border to make sure the thing went the way it was supposed to.” [“Israeli Nuclear Strike On Iran Turned Back By USAF by William Thomas willthomas.net Jan 22/07]

The immediate “spike” in airborne radiation would drop quickly, Hank stated. A Desert Storm scheduled to assault Kuwait on February 25, should have left coalition forces on the other side of the border in the clear.

But the Union of Concerned Scientists is less certain subsurface low-yield detonations can be contained. The nuclear experts point to atomic detonations at the Nevada Test Site showing that “the minimum burial depth to ensure containment… is roughly 100-meters for a one-kiloton explosion.” [ucsusa.org May/05]

Even in sand, bunker busters cannot penetrate anywhere near this depth. As Harper’s Phelan discovered, “Even a 1-kiloton bunker buster – a relative firecracker detonated at 50-feet underground – could eject about 1,000,000 cubic meters of radioactive soil. [Harper’s Dec 1/04]

The bomb detonated near Basra was five-times more powerful.

Given time, the resulting sandy fallout will “spread out and cover everybody with a low dose – instead of a few somebodies with a high dose,” Hank said.

Just like DU.

There is nothing “depleted” about a speck of anything that can kill any organism that ingests or inhales it over the next 4.5 billion years. [Daily Star (Beirut) Sept 14/04; Tribune Media Services June 29/06]

“Basically, it’s like smoking crack,” says former Lawrence Livermore nuclear lab scientist, Leuren Moret regarding uranium dust. “Only you’re inhaling radioactive crack – and it won’t get you high. It will get you dead. It goes right in your nose. It crosses the olfactory bulb into your brain. It’s a systemic poison. It goes everywhere.”

Borne around the globe on high-level winds, radioactive nanoparticles 100-times smaller than a white blood cell go “straight into the blood stream,” Moret continues. “It’s carried all throughout the body into the bones, the bone marrow, the brain. It goes into the fetus. [It] gets picked up in the lipids and probably the cholesterol and go right through the cell membranes of the cell. They screw up the cell processes. They screw up the signaling between the cells because the cells all talk to each other and coordinate what they’re doing. It messes up brain function.” [Project Censored Feb 21/05;
iconoclast-texas.com May 9/05]

And because radioactive particles are not soluble, they cannot be excreted from the body.

Alpha particles tend to bind with phosphate in human bones and DNA. Just one gram of U-238 lodged in the body from a Depleted Uranium round – or a nuclear detonation – emits 12,000 alpha particles per second. [American Free Press Aug 27/04]

According to Eric Wright, Professor of Experimental Hematology at Dundee University, even a cell that seems unharmed by radiation can produce cells with diverse mutations several cell generations later to cause cancer and birth defects. Pentagon studies prior to Desert Storm found that aerosol uranium exposure could lead to cancers of the lung and bone, kidney damage, non-malignant lung disease, neurocognitive disorders, chromosomal damage and birth defects.
[San Francisco Chronicle Oct 10/02]

Another Pentagon-funded study concluded: “Fetal exposure to uranium during critical prenatal development may adversely impact the future behavioral and neurological development of offspring.”
[Vanity Fair Nov/04]

Another problem, Hank reiterated: “You can get secondary cook-off. You can get stuff on the ground to react in ways it never would.” Around Basra, this radioactive blow-back from the February 1991 nuclear detonation included Depleted Uranium dust from previous American attacks, as well as radon bubbling up from underground pools of petroleum back-pressured toward the surface by the shutdown of one of Iraq’s three biggest oilfields.

“If your immune system was brought down by DU, and shutting down the oil [production] made an oil pool under the city and started gassing them with radon – bad!” Hank exclaimed. “The radiation would make them more susceptible to DU, and the DU would make them more susceptible to the radon.”

Add the electromagnetic radiation from high-powered American radios, radars and jammers to all the radioactive sand later churned by military trucks and tracked vehicles, Hank continued. “The U.S. gave the Iraqi people a one-two-three punch… The word, ‘catastrophic’ does not even come close.”

But this was only the beginning of an undeclared nuclear disaster that will poison people and wildlife in southern Iraq until the Earth ends. As Hank went on to point out, a bunker buster that explodes anywhere from 20 feet to 160 feet underground “is more than enough to contaminate every water source in the region. The aquifer would be contaminated. And that wouldn’t go away in a week.”

In fact, U.S. Army training manuals require anyone coming within 25 yards of DU-contaminated homes, equipment or terrain to wear respiratory and skin protection. Otherwise, the manuals warn, “contamination will make food and water unsafe for consumption.” [San Francisco Chronicle Oct 10/02]

“Any significant [radioactive] contamination is likely to migrate by air and water to wider and more populated areas,” confirmed a European Union report. [European Parliament Verbatim Report of Proceedings Apr 9/02]

Or Geiger counters. In the heart of Baghdad, Christian Science Monitor reporter Scott Peterson waved a radiation-detecting wand over a small pile of jet-black dirt near a group of playing children – only to jump back in alarm when the instrument registered 1,900 times the normal background radiation.
[Christian Science Monitor May 15/03; The Daily Star (Beirut) Sept 14/04; WSWS May 10/05]

More than 200 uranium-tipped Tomahawk cruise missiles were fired from U.S. ships and submarines during the first bombardment on Iraq. Hundreds more would follow. In addition, more than 3,000 bombs were dropped on metropolitan Baghdad – and the homes of six million people.

Nearly a quarter-million bombs were dropped by allied forces during Desert Storm. With DU dust blowing everywhere, and and U.S. airstrikes continuing at least weekly for another 16 years, the legacy of permanent low-level radioactivity spread throughout Iraq can only be called genocide. [deoxy.org]

Dr. Asaf Durakovic, a Colonel in the U.S. Army Medical Corps, was put in charge of Nuclear Medicine Service at the Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center. After finding unusually high radiation levels in American veterans, as well as birth defects in the offspring of their spouses, he had became convinced that not only that was DU slowly killing them, but also that it was causing changes in the human gene pool that would ravage future generations in the USA and Iraq. Asked to stop his research by the U.S. government, he refused.

In 2006, soil samples in Iraq showed radiation levels 17-times higher than any readings that might be remotely acceptable – threatening, in , Dr. Durakovic’s words, environmental “catastrophe.” This DU doctor believes that radioactive dust contamination from the 1991 war may have exposed the entire Gulf population. [Depleted Uranium Radioactive Contamination In Iraq Aug/06]

The estimated 300-800 tons of nuclear waste dumped on the people and ecologies of Iraq during Desert Storm were concentrated in the Baghdad region. Far to the south, Iraq’s former capitol “is some 200 kilometres away from sites where large numbers of DU shells were fired,” reported David Rose. Yet, nearly every family tested in Basra experienced extreme symptoms from low level radiation exposure.
[Tribune Media Services June 29/06; byronchild.com; Vanity Fair Nov/04]

Six years after the 1991 Gulf War, a cancer study found Iraqi soldiers who fought in the Basra area to be stricken with “a statistically significant increase in the rate at which they were stricken with lymphomas, leukaemia, and lung, brain, gastrointestinal, bone and liver cancers, as compared to personnel who had not fought in the south.”
[WSWS May 10/05]

“Two strange phenomena have come about in Basra which I have never seen before,” testified Dr. Jawad Al-Ali before the 2003-2004 Citizen’s Tribunal in Japan. “The first is double and triple cancers in one patient. For example, leukemia and cancer of the stomach. We had one patient with two cancers-one in his stomach and kidney. Months later, primary cancer was developing in his other kidney-he had three different cancer types.

“The second is the clustering of cancer in families,” the British-educated MD continued. “We have 58 families here with more than one person affected by cancer. Dr. Yasin, a general Surgeon here has two uncles, a sister and cousin affected with cancer. Dr. Mazen, another specialist, has six family members suffering from cancer. My wife has nine members of her family with cancer.” [Tribune Media Services June 29/06; WSWS May 10/05]

While interviewing Dr. Jawad al-Ali, Director of the Talimi Oncology Center at Basra’s biggest hospital, concerning his research into the effects of radiation and cancer cases “in Iraq’s radioactive governorate of Basra,” Ewa Jasiewicz learned that hospital staff were also dying from radiation poisoning at rates rivaling emergency responders at Chernobyl. “Thirteen doctors and nurses at Talimi have contracted cancer since 1990 – breast, testicular and lymphoma,” this reporter wrote.

With cancer rates “skyrocketing” from a 300% increase in airborne radiation above background levels, Dr. Jawad added that water and food remain the primary contaminated sources. Another big problem is the “re-suspension” of radioactive particles through strong winds, digging, or vehicles driving over radioactive sands.

Iraq‘s second largest city is home to as many as three million people.

“The rate of cancer here has multiplied 15-times since the last Gulf war,” Dr. Jawad stated.

“For Dr. Jawad, the constant cancer cases (many of which go unreported, he stresses) are a spiraling emergency,” Ewa Jasiewicz noted. [“Uranium in Your Koolaid” Occupation Watch Jan 26/04]

Based on their experience in southern Iraq hospitals, MDs Ahmad, Abdul-Hafidh and al-Khazraji found that anyone exposed to nuclear contamination there can expect… “A considerable increase in infectious diseases caused by most severe immunodeficiencies in a great part of the population; frequent occurrence of massive herpes and zoster afflictions in adults and children; AIDS-like syndrome; a hitherto unknown syndrome caused by renal and hepatic dysfunctions; leukemia, elaptic anemia and malignant neoplasms; congenital deformities caused by genetic defects – also to be found in animals, Down’s syndrome, skeletal and chromosomal abnormalities, hair loss, rare skin diseases, severe vertigo accompanied by nausea and loss of balance, distorted vision and loss of sight, severe migraine, sterility among both sexes, and an increase in the incidence of miscarriages and of still, premature and difficult births.”
[Further Evidence on Relation between Depleted Uranium, Incidence of Malignancies among Children in Basra, Southern Iraq Dr. Alim Yacoup; Dr. Imad al-Sa’ doun; Dr. Genan G. Hassan College of Medicine, Basra University]

Does anyone in America understand the word, karma?

With more than half of all cancers in Iraq occurring among children under the age of five, Dr. Jawad al-Ali warned that children are especially susceptible to permanent radioactive fallout. “Children in particular are susceptible to Depleted Uranium poisoning. They have a much higher absorption rate as their blood is being used to build and nourish their bones and they have a lot of soft tissues. Bone cancer and leukemia used to be diseases affecting them the most. However, cancer of the lymph system, which can develop anywhere on the body, and has rarely been seen before the age of 12 is now also common,” he said. [Lifeboatnews.com May 27/03; Tribune Media Services June 29/06; americanchronicle.com]

Doctors Ahmad Hardan, Abdul-Hafidh and al-Khazraji were also seeing “escalating numbers” of children wasting away from leukemia, lymphomas and Hodgkin’s disease. Child leukemia in southern Iraq has leaped 400% since 1990.
[Junge Welt Oct 24/00; Further Evidence on Relation between Depleted Uranium, Incidence of Malignancies among Children in Basra]

When the Japanese began studying radiation effects in the southern Iraq during the summer of 2003, their Geiger counter went “off the scale on many occasions. During their vista local hospital was treating upwards of 600 children per day.”
[envirosagainstwar.org; americanchronicle.com Apr 17/06; WSWS May 10/05]

Six-hundred sick children every day?

Breast cancer in young women, age 30 and under is also “many times higher”, and ovarian cancer in women has increased by 1,600%. [Southern Iraq College of Medicine, Basra University]

“After the Gulf War, they had maybe one baby a week born with birth defects in the hospitals in Basra. Now they are having 10-12 a day,” laments Leuren Moret. “The levels of uranium are increasing in the population every year. Every day, people are eating and drinking while the whole environment is contaminated. There are more babies born with birth defects, and the birth defects are getting more and more severe.”

In Afghanistan and Iraq, women who should be overjoyed by their pregnancies call their condition “jelly belly”. So many babies are being born with stubby limbs, with their intestines outside their bodies, with huge bulging tumors where their eyes should be-or with a single Cyclopean eye, or without eyes, or without limbs, and even without heads-new mothers no longer ask, “Is it a girl or a boy?”

Instead, they anxiously inquire, “Is it normal, doctor?”

In March 2004 the Tokyo Citizen’s Tribunal found George Bush and his administration “guilty of war crimes” for using illegal weapons against the Balkans, Afghanistan and Iraq. [Depleted Uranium Radioactive Contamination In Iraq: An Overview by Dr. Souad al-Azzawi Aug/06 Hiroshima]

Basra’s beleaguered doctors were not alone in realizing they faced something extreme. Before her death from sudden-onset cancer, beloved Iraqi artist and Baghdad Diaries author, Nuha al-Radi wrote, “The carnage takes place in apocalyptic proportions… Everyone seems to be dying of cancer. Every day one hears about another acquaintance or friend of a friend dying. How many more die in hospitals that one does not know? Apparently, over thirty percent of Iraqis have cancer, and there are lots of kids with leukemia… “

Photo Captions/Credits

Part 2
1. B61-11 nuclear bomb telegraph.co.uk
2. Bush Sr. todaysgolfer.co.uk
3. MOAB mushroom cloud usatoday.com
4. Basra survivors flee American bombing ccmep.org
5. Baghdad hit by huge bombs abc.net.au
6. al-Rasheed military facility hit in southeast Baghdad AFP
7. B52D bomber defensetech.org
8. Basra before it was blown up fromthewilderness.com


Part III Tora Bora




willthomasonline.net exclusive

On Tuesday evening, November 12, 2001, Babrak Khan, a Jalalabad resident and former guard at a nearby base for Islamic militants, saw the distinctly bearded and emaciated Osama bin Laden standing in front of a guesthouse. The next day, Osama and his al-Qaeda and Taliban followers headed into the nearby Tora Bora mastiffs.

American bombing of the region intensified. The 11th day of Ramadan – November 26, 2001 – saw Osama seated deep inside a cave complex with a glass of hot green tea in hand. Mohammed Akram, who occasionally cooked for bin Laden, was fixing dinner in another cave when a huge bomb exploded, blowing him 30-feet backwards. Two of his colleagues were killed, and Mohammed, along with another Saudi and a Kurdish fighter, decided not to hang around.

Osama bin Laden fled Tora Bora around December 1, heading for Pakistan’s Parachinar region. Eastern Afghanistan’s intelligence chief, Pir Baksh Bardiwal was astounded when the Pentagon failed to use convenient helicopter Landing Zones to insert U.S. forces to block the most obvious exit routes.

But the Americans did not know the ailing terror financier had left Tora Bora. When Osama bin Laden phoned back to the enclave on December 10, urging his followers to keep fighting, U.S. intelligence officers picked up his transmission and conclued that Osama bin Laden was still in his caves. [Christian Science Monitor Mar 4/02]

Which might also explain why a USAF C-130 had dropped the heaviest bomb in their conventional inventory – a 15,000 pound “Daisy-Cutter” – against Tora Bora the previous day.
[London Times Dec 10/01]

Rushed into production after 9/11, at least eight BLU-118Bs were quickly deployed into the Afghan theater. The Global Security website confirms the first field-test of this new weapon: “On or about March 3, 2002 a single 2,000-pound thermobaric bomb was used for the first time in combat against cave complexes in which al-Qaeda and Taliban fighters had taken refuge in the Gardez region of Afghanistan.”

Guided by U.S. Special Forces “lasing” cave complexes with invisible laser pointers, the Navy’s new polymer-bonded “thermobaric” bomb would be more accurately termed a “thermobarbaric” terror weapon.

“It works as a combination of a shock wave and a fuel explosion,” explained CENTCOM Commander Matthew Klee. “The first explosion spreads flammable aerosols through the underground complex. Then, the second ignites the fuel” – crushing the internal organs of everyone caught in the blast zone.

“Instead of boom, this bomb goes BOOOOOOOM!” thundered Air Force spokesman Captain Joe Della Vedova. “This thing kills the earthworms.” [Las Vegas Review Jan 21/02]

Over the March 1, 2002 weekend, the Pentagon tested two more “experimental” BLU-118B MOABs during Operation Anaconda. Was this “Mother Of All Bombs” also the Mother Of All Deceptions?

“This sort of cover-story makes it easy for, say, reporters, to believe they have witnessed a fuel-air explosion, when in fact it was a very small, low-yield, nuclear weapon,” George Paxinos pointed out at the Information Clearing House. Why else would “the USA suddenly publicly announce in 2001 and 2002 its intention to use this sort of weapon against the Taliban hiding out in caves, when in war, you do not usually go out and broadcast your intentions… to your enemy?”

And why, Paxinos pondered, would this “intense propaganda effort” to alert Americans and the world to Washington’s new Massive Ordnance Air Burst Weapon emphasize that the resulting blast “produces a fireball and a mushroom-cloud almost indistinguishable from that of a small tactical nuclear weapon?”

And why did CNN, among other networks, parrot Washington’s nonsensical assertions that an air-burst bomb originally designed “to be used against large formations of troops and equipment” would now be deployed against “deeply buried targets”? The network helpfully hinted, “Officials suggest perhaps the Iraqis might even mistake a MOAB blast for a nuclear detonation.” [CNN Mar 11/03]

“This is a cover-story,” Paxinos asserted. We were “being prepared for the pre-emptive use of tactical nuclear weapons.”

DU expert Tedd Weyman points to George Bush’s revised Nuclear Posture Review. Issued in March 2002, the new NPR pledged to test Nuclear Penetrator Missiles. “That’s my hunch,” Weyman believes. “We tested the prototypes there.”

Paxinos and Weyman were right.

According to Hank, under the cover of massive DU-tipped bombs that raised dirty mushroom clouds in thunderous explosions that rained radioactive dust over Jalalabad and nearby villages, the first nuclear bombs dropped since Basra in 1991 were detonated by American forces in Afghanistan beginning in March 2002. Before their field tests were concluded, United States forces would explode four 5-kiloton GBU-400 nuclear bombs in Tora Bora and other mountainous regions of Afghanistan.

In order to obtain a seismographic “snapshot” of a mountain’s internal structure, at least one of these four nuclear detonations took place alongside a craggy karst in the open air.

Hank’s buddies, who were on the scene, told him what happened far from scrutinizing media eyes in the remote mountains of northern Afghanistan. As he paraphrased their reports: “Back our guys away from the general area – ‘Don’t look that way for two or three seconds’ – and oops! we blew that up.”

With shockwaves rippling through the mountains, and fallout spreading through mountain passes, Taliban and al-Qaeda fighters knew that something momentous had occurred. But killing a few of the enemy in collapsing rock and a nuclear fireball actually proved counterproductive, Hank related. “It drove others deeper into less accessible areas. It backfired.”

Wouldn’t seismographic needles jump on distant dials, I asked Hank?

They did, he replied. But pinning down the source of such blasts in nearly impossible.

“You may hear something, but you would not be able to designate it because there was too much else going on. There’s no way you could call it,” Hank explained. A major conventional explosion, such as a huge C-130 or C5 Galaxy transport plane auguring in, “would give you the same seismographical signature.”

Keith Nakanishi and other seismologists at the Lawrence Livermore nuclear bomb labs agree that detecting, locating, and identifying a clandestine nuclear explosion is particularly challenging in the Middle East, where unusual tremors picked up by a few, widely scattered seismic monitoring stations would be drowned out by a large number of earthquakes and mining and oil drilling explosions. Add to this cacophony, waves of cruise missile strikes and massive bombs dropped by American warplanes.

Nevertheless, the Livermore seismologists state that among “thousands of seismic signals annually, some [are] quite similar to the signals that would be generated by a small underground nuclear blast.”

If major megaton-size nuclear weapons tests cause earthquakes, could a “baby nuke” do the same. The U.S. Geological Survey admits that even “deep mining can cause small to moderate quakes, and nuclear testing has caused small earthquakes in the immediate area surrounding the test site.” [earthquake.usgs.gov]

The Livermore scientists also note that a conventional 1,000 pound explosion set off by Israel on the shores of the Dead Sea on November 8, 1999 resulted in a quake of magnitude of 2.6 on the Richter scale. A 2,000-kilogram explosive detonated two days later, caused a 3.5 quake. [llnl.gov]

Each of the four nuclear weapons dropped on Afghanistan set off a bedrock-amplified explosive force of 10,000 tons.

The blasts in Tora Bora were immediately followed by a severe earthquake that “struck northern Afghanistan and was felt as far away as India,” the People’s Weekly World reported. Even in this earthquake-prone region, the long-lasting and powerful tremors were unprecedented, killing 150 people killed and destroying 500 houses.

“It is not unlikely that the use of powerful bombs led to the quake,” one geophysicist said.

Moscow thought so, too. An ITAR-TASS report speculated that the 7.2 Richter-scale ‘quake that struck northern Afghanistan “may have been caused by the powerful fuel-air and bunker-penetrating bombs used in earlier U.S. air strikes in that same region.” [whatmatters.nu]

Reviewing the stresses “induced in the earth’s crust” by powerful explosions, Kamran Ahmed reported from Karachi, “The severe earthquakes that struck Afghanistan in March can be attributed to these bombings.”

But were the quake-triggering blasts nuclear?

Gary Whiteford, Professor of Geography at the University of New Brunswick in Canada is renowned for his exhaustive research correlating nuclear tests and earthquakes. Looking at “killer earthquakes” that kill at least 1,000 people, Dr. Whiteford found that 63% of those earthquakes occurred within one to three days after a nuclear blast test. [dawn.com]

In 50 years before atomic testing began, 68 earthquakes of more than Richter 5.8 occurred every year. When hundreds of atomic bombs started going off in what can only be described as a large-scale nuclear war against the Earth, the quake rate rose “suddenly and dramatically” – nearly doubling to an average 127 major quakes per year.

TheU.S. military attributes the telltale increase to “coincidence.” But Whiteford comments, “The geographical patterns in the data, with a clustering of earthquakes in specific regions matched to specific test dates and sites do not support the easy and comforting explanation of `pure coincidence.’ It is a dangerous coincidence.”

“Abnormal meteorological phenomena, earthquakes and fluctuations of the earth’s axis are related in a direct cause-and-effect to testing of nuclear devices,” concurs Shigeyoshi Matsumae, President of Tokai University, and Yoshio Kato, Head of the University’s Department of Aerospace Science.

As Matsumae and Kato point out: “On June 19, 1992, the United States conducted an underground nuclear bomb test in Nevada. Another test was conducted only four days afterwards. Three days later, a series of heavy earthquakes as high as 7.6 on the Richter scale rocked the Mojave desert 176 miles to the south. They were the biggest earthquakes to hit California this century. Only 22 hours later, an “unrelated” earthquake of 5.6 struck less than 20 miles from the Nevada test site itself. It was the biggest earthquake ever recorded near the test site and caused one-million dollars of damage to buildings in an area designated for permanent disposal of highly radioactive nuclear wastes only fifteen miles from the epicenter of the earthquake.” [ratical.org]

So far, more than one million people have died in earthquakes that could be related to nuclear tests.

Meanwhile, Taliban fighters pounded night and day north of Kabul were dying from no visible injuries – except the blood flowing out of their mouths from internal bleeding. Near the Rish-Khor military base in the Afghan northern capitol, birds sat on tree branches with blood running from their beaks. As one eyewitness later recounted, “‘We were amazed to see all these birds sitting quietly on branches. But when we shook the tree the birds fell down and we saw blood coming out of their mouths. Then we climbed the trees to see those that were still stuck on tree branches, all of them had bled from their mouths. Two of the birds appeared to be partly melted into the trees branches’.”

According to PhD Mohammed Daud Miraki, who collected many first-hand accounts on the after-effects of heavy U.S. bombing, “many dead Taliban soldiers had severe discoloration of the skin, orange, without being burned, while others had their rifles melted in their hands.”

A medical doctor named Wazir reported, “Most of the victims have had respiratory problems and internal bleeding for which there is no apparent cause.” [khalifa.com Oct 30/01]

Were these symptoms caused by the massive concussive blasts of fuel-air bombs?

Very likely. When American jets dropped bunker busters at daybreak on the mud homes of Karam, the village was completely destroyed in massive craters. Many residents were killed from what appeared to be internal concussive injuries.

But other victims of American bombing exhibited symptoms of radiation sickness. In describing “another bizarre, yet tragic scene,” Dr, Mohammed continued, “Many Taliban soldiers that survived the bombing in the north have died after returning to their native villages in the south and southeast of the country. They had no physical injury upon their death, however, died from internal bleeding and other bizarre symptoms including uncontrolled vomiting, diarrhea, and blood loss in urine and stool. Their families were shocked with disbelieves.” [Afghan DU & Recovery Fund]

Perplexed by such symptoms, and uniquely “hot” munitions debris, medical teams and technical experts thought they were looking at “enhanced” Non-Depleted Uranium from a new generation of radioactive cannon shells, bomb and missile casings.

In fact, they were very likely looking at severe contamination from actual nuclear weapons.

By May 2002, many more critics of the indiscriminate bombardment of Afghan cities and villages suspected that new weapons were being tested. That month, Dr. Asaf Durakovic, founder and director of Canada’s Uranium Medical Research Center, sent a team in-country to interview and examine civilians in heavily bombed Nangarhar. This province, the BBC reported, had become “a strategic target zone for the deployment of a new generation of deep-penetrating ‘cave-busting’ and seismic shock warheads.”

The British broadcasters failed to mention that each of these new weapons was tipped with more than one ton of NDU.

Alerted to the “radioactive, toxic uranium alloys and hard-target uranium warheads used by the coalition forces,” the UMRC team started looking for radiation poisoning. What they found was, in their words, “astonishing” and “astounding”.

Identifying “several hundred people suffering from illnesses and conditions similar to those of Gulf veterans,” the team began administering tests. “Without exception, every person donating urine specimens tested positive for uranium internal contamination,” UMRC reported. But the readings were off the scale of previous known DU exposures: “The results were astounding: the donors presented concentrations of toxic and radioactive uranium isotopes between 100 and 400 times greater than in the Gulf veterans tested in 1999.”

A control group three uncontaminated Afghans averaged 9.4 nanograms of uranium per litre of urine. The average for 17 randomly selected patients Jalalabad, Kabul, Tora Bora and Mazar-i-Sharif was 315.5 nanograms. A 12-year-old boy living near Kabul displayed 2,031 nanograms.

The maximum permissible level for members of the American public is 12 nanograms per litre.

A follow-up UMRC visit to Afghanistan in September 2002 bore out the earlier findings. But conditions were much worse, with “a potentially much broader area and larger population of contamination.”

Dr. Durakovic told the BBC he was “stunned” by the results. “I’m certainly not saying Afghanistan was a vast experiment with new uranium weapons. But use your common sense.”

The consequences of ingesting radioactive particles were already reaching out to embrace the residents, troops and aid agency staffs in the world’s most impoverished nation – as well as their spouses and subsequent offspring at home.
The baffling problem was, reported Stephanie Hiller, that while hundreds of tested Afghan people presented symptoms resembling those of DU-exposed Gulf War veterans – none of the civilians tested at Nangarhar showed any trace of Depleted Uranium.

The editor of Awakened Woman visited some of the six sites examined by the UMRC team in and around Kabul, where U.S. bunker buster bombs were detonated. With bioassays identifying uranium internal contamination in the Spin Gar (Tora Bora) area, and Kabul up to 2,000% higher than an unexposed population, the UMRC reported: “The isotopic ratios of the uranium contaminant measured in Afghan civilians show that it is not Depleted Uranium (DU). The isotopes of uranium found in the Afghan civilians’ urine is Non-Depleted Uranium.”

Field surveyors found that the bulk of the radioactive contamination occurred in the Tora Bora, Bagram frontline, as well as frontlines north of Kabul, Shaikoot, Paktia, Paktika, Mazar-i-Sharif, and Kunduz – where massive bunker busters and fuel-air bombs were detonated, perhaps in part to mask striking health effects from four nuclear blasts.

Other medical survey teams also reported that in bombardments of the Tora Bora, Shaikoot and Bagram frontline, “large number of antiaircraft weapons and rifles had melted… Many Taliban soldiers were seen with blood coming out from their mouths, noses and ears.” Those who returned to their villages “started to vomit blood and had bloody stools. Subsequently, many have died from their conditions.”

After the bombardment in Khost, public health workers reported seeing skin lesions. In a manner resembling the victims of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Afghan people who developed skin lesions died after their conditions deteriorated.

In Pachir Wa Agam district near Tora Bora, “women started to suffer from a deadly condition. Several months after the bombing, women of the area would become angry by petty things and that anger turns into rage, which subsequently causes the women to collapse and die. My team also reported that many children are born with no limbs, no eyes, or tumors protruding out from their mouths and their eyes,” its leader related.

“Subsequent to the contamination, newborn children have physical deformities, and those that do not have physical deformity are suffering from Mental Retardation. These cases are reported from Paktia, Nangarhar, Bagram, Mazar-i-Sharif and Kunduz,” the UMRC stated.

A man named Assadullah told the team in February 2003 that his wife had given birth to child so badly deformed he hardly resembled an infant. “When I saw my little boy with those monstrous red tumors, I thought to myself, why is it difficult for Americans to understand that they are hated in our country?” Assadullah said. “If I do this to the child of an American family, that family has the right to pull my eyes out of my eye sockets. I like to tell the Americans that they love to live their lives of luxury at the expense of our extermination.” [European Parliament Verbatim Report of Proceedings Apr 9/02]

Zar Ghoon is the father of another victim of U.S. bombing attacks on Kunduz. In December 2002 he told the medical survey team, “My wife was pregnant and we were happily waiting for the moment to see our second child. When the baby was born, it was hardly a human… When my wife saw the baby, she went into shock and died after five hours.”

Speaking with a field volunteers near Tora Bora in April 2003, Sa’yed Gharib lost it. Screaming in grief and rage he shouted, “What else do the Americans want? They killed us, they turned our newborns into horrific deformations, and they turned our farmlands into graveyards and destroyed our homes. On top of all that their planes fly over and spray us with bullets.”

“Tell America, we are not fools. Your words and actions are those of evil. We do not have airplanes like you do, however, we have one thing that you do not have: principles and morals. We will never do anything remotely similar to American children what Americans have done to our children and families,” declared Nurullah Omar-Khail. [Afghan DU & Recovery Fund]

According to Mohammed Daud Miraki’s extensive public health survey, “Most of the people that developed various health problems have died; others suffer from conditions such as kidney disease/failure, confusion, and loss of immunity and painful joints.”

Dr. Durakovic told reporters, “If UMRC’s Nangarhar findings are corroborated in other communities across Afghanistan, the country faces a severe public health disaster… every subsequent generation is at risk.” [BBC May3/03]

By October 2002, Afghan doctors citing rapid deaths from internal ailments were accusing the coalition of using chemical and radioactive weapons. The symptoms they reported (hemorrhaging, pulmonary constriction and vomiting) could have resulted from radiation contamination. [LeMonde Diplomatique Mar/02]

But inhalation, ingestion or wound-contamination by Depleted Uranium particles does not lead to such acute radiation poisoning symptoms immediately after exposure. Nor would “surface water, rice fields and catch-basins adjacent to and surrounding the bombsites have high values of uranium, up to 27 Xs normal,” as the UMRC found.

Hank believes that Afghanistan’s water table contains much more radioacative contamination than can be ascribed to DU and NDU contamination. The effective genetic sterilization of that country’s southern region can also be traced to fallout washing down from the mountains where four American nuclear weapons were detonated. “Rain runs downhill,” he says.

If not exactly “routine”, Hank says, the undisclosed use of five nuclear weapons against Iraq and Afghanistan has resulted in a dangerous shift in U.S. war fighting. As he put it, “Using tactical nukes is now an acceptable doctrine until otherwise notified.”

Iran and the rest of the world, beware. In calling America a “Nuclear Rogue,” the New York Times warned, “Nuclear weapons are not just another part of the military arsenal. They are different, and lowering the threshold for their use is reckless folly.” [New York Times Mar 11/02]

As Alok O’Brien concludes, “There is no longer time to pretend that everything will be alright, and that all thinking and feeling people need to unite in their hopes and dreams and reclaim the earth and their birthright before it is too late.”

With the countdown continuing on Iran – and any constraints against Washington’s use of nuclear weapons already removed by the detonation of five low-yield nuclear bombs in Iraq and Afghanistan – the time to act is now.

Photo Captions/Credits

Part 3
1. Tora Bora blast resembles tactical nuclear detonation                               cooperativeresearch.org
2. Tora Bora blast (insert) Dec 15/01                                                           photo by Kevin Frayer AP/CP
3. Bagram Airport blast Oct 30/01                                                               september11news.com
4. Geroge Bush must give nuclear strike orders                                            watch.windsofchange.net
5. radiation victim (Iraq) Mar 25/04                                                               mindfully.org
6. radiation victim (Iraq) Mar 25/04                                                               mindfully.org

Iraq: US dropped nuclear bomb near Basra in 1991, claims veteran

Iraq: US dropped nuclear bomb near Basra in 1991,

claims veteran




Part II: Sleight Of Nuke

Part III Tora Bora

Rome, 8 Oct. (AKI) – An American veteran of the first Gulf War in Iraq claims that the United States dropped a five-kilotonne nuclear bomb in 1991 in a deserted area outside the southern city of Basra on the Iranian border.

The claim by US war veteran Jim Brown was made during an interview included in a 30-minute current affairs report to be broadcast by Italian state news channel RaiNews24 on Thursday.

Brown told the Italian news channel that the bombing took place on the last day of the war in Iraq on 27 February 1991.

RaiNews24 claims to have conducted its own inquiry and found that a seismic event took place on that day equal to a five-kilotonne blast.

The network cited the online archives of the International Seismological Center, a non-profit UK-based organisation, as confirmation of its research.

The Italian journalist in charge of the inquiry Maurizio Torrealta told Adnkronos International (AKI) that there is no definitive proof of the nuclear blast and that it should not be taken as a fact.

Instead he asked the international community to further investigate the claims by Brown.

“We are asking journalists and the international community for help, in order to clarify this,” said Torrealta.

However, in the documentary, which was shown to the media on Wednesday, Torrealta said that one of the possible reasons that the US may have dropped the bomb, was in retribution for the launch of Scud missiles on the US Dhahran military base in Saudi Arabia on 25 February.

Twenty-eight American soldiers died in the attack.

The US veteran, Jim Brown was not present during the alleged launch of the bomb and it is not clear how he obtained the information.

RaiNews24 said that 45-year-old Brown was originally a fourth-level engineer in the US Army and was demoted to third-level after health problems, following a vaccination against chemical weapons.

The injection deteriorated his health and he was eventually discharged from the army with honour.

He is now director of the GulfWatch I.N.S. organisation. Its website claims to have 350 supporters who are or were involved in coalition intelligence during the 1991 Gulf War.

“These people have agreed to work together to make sure that as much information about the war as possible is released about the activities prior to, during and after the war that have affected the health of potentially hundreds of thousands of soldiers, and their spouses and children,” said a statement on the website.

The documentary included an interview with an Iraqi doctor, Jawad al-Ali, who told RaiNews24 that before the beginning of the first Gulf War in 1989 there were 32 cases of tumours, while in 2002 the number had risen to 600 in the Basra area.

Al-Ali also told RaiNews24 that tumours that used to affect older citizens had started to impact younger children. He then showed alleged photos of the tumours in the documentary.

During the RaiNews24 report , Torrealta said that the US State Department had rejected Brown’s claims and said only ‘conventional’ weapons had been used during the first Gulf War.


-It can occur?
il mio nome è Jim Brown, sono un veterano dell’esercito americano con dieci anni d’ esperienza. my name is Jim Brown, is a veteran of the American army with ten years’ experience.

-quando è stato in Iraq? -when he was in Iraq?
Sono stato mandato in Arabia Saudita in appoggio alle truppe che dovevano intervenire in Iraq, Ho iniziato la mia attività il 25 settembre e ho lasciato l’ Arabia Saudita il 16 di Febbraio. I was sent to Saudi Arabia in support of troops that had to intervene in Iraq, I started my business on September 25 and I left the ‘Saudi Arabia on 16 February. 1991. 1991.

-Cosa è avvenuto là che non è mai stato rivelato? -What happened there that has never been revealed?
I militari americani assieme ai loro alleati hanno sganciato una bomba nucleare di circa cinque Chilotoni di potenza, nell’area di Bassora in Iraq. The U.S. military along with their allies have released a nuclear bomb about five Chilotoni power in Basra in Iraq.

-Dove è stata usata ? -Where was used?
La bomba fu utilizzata tra la città di Basra ed il confine con l’ Iran. The bomb was used between the cities of Basra and the border with ‘Iran.

-Chi l’ha sganciata? -Who released?
E’ stata usata dai militari americani, l’arma utilizzata è una bomba nucleare da cinque Chilotoni viene anche chiamata bomba nucleare a potenza variabile. E ‘was used by American military, the weapon used was a nuclear bomb by five Chilotoni is also called a nuclear bomb power variable.

-Che tipo di arma era ? “That was kind of weapon?
L’ Arma è essenzialmente una bomba a penetrazione ad alta efficienza, quando viene sganciata penetra all’interno dell’obbiettivo, in questo caso è penetrata all’ interno del terreno ed è esplosa là dentro. L ‘weapon is essentially a bomb to penetrate the high-efficiency, when released gets inside the objective, in this case is penetrated’ s soil and exploded inside there. Viene anche utilizzata per rendere inaccessibili certe aree. It is also used to make certain areas inaccessible. Significa in pratica che l’ intera area viene irradiata di radiazioni. It means in practice that ‘s entire area is radiated radiation. E’ anche un messaggio molto efficacie se volete dire a qualcuno di stare lontano da quel posto. It ‘a very effective message if you want to tell someone to stay away from that place. Viene chiamata “Bunker Booster” It is called “Bunker Booster”

La versione DEL VETERANO The veteran
di Maurizio Torrealta Mauritian Torrealta

Secondo l’accusa del veterano Jim Brown , durante la prima guerra del Golfo una piccola bomba nucleare di 5 Chilotoni, sarebbe stata fatta esplodere tra la città irachena di Basra ed il confine con l’Iran. Se cosi fosse stato, si sarebbe trattato della terza bomba nucleare usata durante un conflitto dopo quelle di Hiroshima e Nagasaki According to the indictment of veteran Jim Brown, during the first Gulf War a small nuclear bomb than 5 Chilotoni, would be made to explode between the Iraqi cities of Basra and the border with Iran. If it had been so, this would be the third nuclear bomb used during a conflict after the Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Una bomba nucleare di 5 Chilotoni è una bomba relativamente piccola, più piccola di quella di Hiroscima che era di 16 Chilotoni, e di quella di Nakasakhi che era di 22. A nuclear bomb of 5 Chilotoni is a relatively small bomb, smaller than Hiroscima who was 16 Chilotoni, and that of Nakasakhi who was 22. Gli effetti della radioattività, però sono ugualmente terribili. The effects of radioactivity, but they are equally appalling.

Siamo venuti a conoscenza della testimonianza di Jim Brown grazie a Willam Thomas un giornalista canadese che ha molto lavorato con I veterani dell’Esercito Americano e ci ha messo in contato con lui. We have come to the attention of the testimony of Jim Brown with Thomas WILLAME a Canadian journalist who has long worked with the veteran American dell’Esercito and put us in contact with him.

-Non ha paura di parlare di queste cose? -Not afraid to talk about these things?
Bisogna capire cosa é la paura. We need to understand what is the fear. C’è un punto in cui devi dire: basta, e quando superi quella linea non hai molto compagnia accanto a te, o lo fai o non lo fai, quando ero nei militari ho alzato la mano destra ed ho fatto un giuramento ed ho detto “questo è quello che io difenderò” There is a point where you say: enough, and if it exceeds that line you do not have much company next to you, or you do or do not do this, when I was in the military have raised their right hand and I made an oath and I said “This is what I defend”

Chi è Jim Brown ? Who is Jim Brown?

Nato nel 1965 entra nell’ esercito a 22 anni , diventa Ingegnere meccanico nella decima divisione montana di Fort Drum. Born in 1965 comes in ‘army in 22 years, becomes mechanical engineer in the tenth mountain division of Fort Drum. Partecipa a Desert Storm in Arabia Saudita dal 25 settembre del 1990 al 16 Febbraio 1991,rientra per problemi familiari e comincia ad accusare strani disturbi. Participates in Desert Storm in Saudi Arabia since 25 September 1990 to February 16, 1991, falls to family problems and begins to experience strange symptoms. Come altri veterani inizia una lunga battaglia perché la sua malattia venga riconosciuta. si ammala, a suo dire, a causa di un vaccino contro l’ antrace che gli è stato iniettato in arabia Saudita , Nel 1997 viene ripreso ufficialmente per alcuni contrasti e degradato da Ingegnere di Livello 4 ad ingegnere di 3 livello. Like other veterans began a long battle because his illness is recognized. Falls ill, he said, because of a vaccine against ‘anthrax that has been injected into Saudi Arabia, in 1997 is officially taken over for some contrasts and degraded by Level 4 engineer to engineer 3 level. L’abbassamento di livello non gli permette di svolgere la mansione delle quale è incaricato e quindi viene congedato, ma con onore. The lower level it impossible for him to perform the task of which is appointed and then dismissed, but with honor. La sua attività nell’ organizzazione dei veterani dell’esercito americano lo ha gia portato AD ESSERE CITATO DALLA GRANDE stampa , come in questo articolo del 2003 sul New York Times EA ESSERE ASCOLTATO DAL Comitato di Consulenza della Presidenza degli Stati Uniti sulle malattie dei Veterani della Guerra del Golfo. His work in ‘organization of veterans of the American army has already resulted TO BE SUED BY LARGE print, as in this article of 2003 on the New York Times EA be heard by the Advisory Committee of the presidency of the United States on diseases of Veterans Gulf War.

Di ritorno da Desert Storm fonda l’ Organizzazione di Veterani Gulf Watch Intelligent Networking Sistem. Returning from Desert Storm based l ‘Organization of Gulf Veterans Watch Intelligent Networking System. Jim Brown pARLA PER LA PRIMA VOLTA DELL’uso di una piccola bomba nucleare sotto pseudonimo nel sito del giornalista canadese Thomas William. Jim Brown SPEAKS FOR FIRST TIME use of a small nuclear bomb under the pseudonym site of Canadian journalist William Thomas. Questa è INVECE LA PRIMA INTERVISTA TELEVISIVA di Jim BROWN SULL’ARGOMENTO . This is HAND THE FIRST TELEVISION INTERVIEW of Jim Brown on the subject.

– Perchè è stata usata? – Why was used?
la spiegazione migliore che sono stato in grado di verificare fino ad ora è che è stata usata per mandare un messaggio a Sadam che eramo determinati a finire questa gueera e vincere il confllitto the best explanation that I was able to check so far is that was used to send a message to that Sadam Eramo determined to finish this gueera and win the confllitto

Ma quali sono i riscontri al suo racconto? But what are the findings to his story? Abbiamo controllato se nella banca dati online del Centro Sismologico Internazionale, nella area intorno alla citta di Basra in Iraq, era stato registrato un evento sismico della stessa forza di 5 Chilotoni, 5 Chilotoni corrispondono ad una Magnitudo di circa 4,2 nella scala Richter . We have checked whether the online database of the International Seismological Center, the area around the city of Basra in Iraq, was a seismic event of the same strength of 5 Chilotoni, 5 Chilotoni correspond to a Magnitude of about 4.2 in the Richter scale.

Abbiamo trovato che l’unico evento sismico avvenuto durante i 43 giorni di Desert Storm è stato un evento di magnitudo : 4.2 scala Richther ed è stato registrato proprio nella zona descritta da Jim Brown tra la città di Basra e il confine con l’Iran . We found that the only seismic event occurred during the 43 days of Desert Storm was an event of magnitude: 4.2 scale Richther and was recorded precisely in the area described by Jim Brown between the cities of Basra and the border with Iran.
E’ catalogato con il numero 342793 è avvenuto il 27 di Febbraio del 1991 , proprio l’ultimo giorno del conflitto, alle ore 13:39. E ‘cataloged with the number 342793 was the case on 27 February 1991, just on the last day of the conflict, at 13:39. Il fenomeno è stato registrato da 9 centri sismici, 2 in Iran, 4 in Nepal , uno in Canada ,uno in Svezia ed uno in Norvegia , questi due ultimi hanno anche misurato l’intensità dell esplosione di circa Magnitudo 4, 2. La sua profondità viene collocata nel primo livello superficiale che fa da 0 a 33 km, The incident was recorded by 9 seismic centers, 2 in Iran, 4 in Nepal, one in Canada, one in Sweden and one in Norway, the latter two have also measured the intensity of explosion around Magnitude 4, 2. His depth is placed in tier surface which is from 0 to 33 km,

Ulteriori informazioni possono essere fornite dall’ analisi delle onde sismiche registrate dalle stazioni nei diversi Paesi ma data la vastità del lavoro chiediamo agli organismi internazionali che svolgono il monitoraggio antinucleare ed ai centri sismici nazionali coinvolti , di aiutarci nella raccolta di elementi certi e dirimenti per capire se sia trattato di una esplosione o di un terremoto. Further information can be provided by ‘analysis of seismic waves recorded by stations in different countries but given the vastness of the work we ask international organizations that perform monitoring and anti-national seismic centers involved, to help in gathering evidence and dirimenti to understand if they are treated to an explosion or an earthquake.

Ma in che contesto storico e politico un’arma come quella di cui ci parla il veterano avrebbe potuto essere utilizzata durante “desert sorm”? But in that historical context and political weapon as the one that we talk the veteran could be used during “SORM desert? rileggiamo la sequenza dei fatti: re-read the sequence of events:

il 2 agosto 1990 Saddam Hussei invade il Kwait Aug 2 1990 Saddam Hussei invaded Kwait

16 gennaio 1991 Il Presidente George Bush annuncia al mondo che è inizata “Desert Storm”la più grande opeazione bellica dopo il 1948 , 28 paesi intervengono a fianco degli Usa. 16 January 1991 President George Bush announces to the world that began “Desert Storm” the largest opeazione war after 1948, 28 countries are involved alongside the United States.

Ma come avrebbe reagito il mondo islamico? But how would react the Islamic world?

Dichiarazione James Baker Statement by James Baker
noi vogliamo creare le basi che ci mettano nella posizione di avere una credibile opzione per l’ uso della forza (nucleare) che è molto differente da dire che il Presidente abbia preso la decisione di muoversi in quella direzione , noi vorremo che fosse un segnale molto chiaro, -e lo è molto chiaro -ed indiscutibile che quando il Presidente dice che non vuole escludere la possibilità non l’ abbiamo esclusa come opzione ma la riteniamo una credibile opzione we want to create the foundations that we put in a position to have a credible option for ‘use of force (nuclear) which is very different from saying that the President has taken the decision to move in that direction, we want it to be a very clear-and-is very clear and indisputable that when the President says that will not exclude the possibility l ‘we have excluded as an option but we believe a credible option

  • Se Sadam avesse utilizzato armi chimiche o batteriologiche il Pentagono avrebbe potuto rispondere anche con l’atomica, ma sull’ utilizzo del nucleare viene lasciata una voluta ambiguita, tanto che lo stesso Segretario di Stato James Baker conia l’espressione “Dottrina dell’ambiguità calcolata, If Sadam had used chemical or bacteriological weapons, the Pentagon could respond with nuclear, but on ‘use of nuclear energy remains a deliberate ambiguity, so that the Secretary of State James Baker coins the term “doctrine of ambiguity calculated ,

  • JIM BROWN Jim Brown
    Il punto centrale è che comunque fosse andata si sarebbe trattato di risultato positivo per gli Stati Uniti: potevano lanciare questa bomba in una delle zone più deserte immediatamente disponibili, nel corso di un conflitto , poteva essere riconosciuta per quello che in realtà era o non poteva neanche essere riconosciuta dal momento che esplodeva in parte sottoterra, poteva essere vista una versione minore del caratteristico fungo atomico, ma se si era abbastanza distanti, non si sarebbe capito quello che stava succedendo. The central point is that in any way was this would be a positive result for the United States could launch this bomb in a deserted area immediately available during a conflict, could be recognized for what it actually was or could not not even be recognized as partially exploded underground, could be seen a smaller version of the characteristic atomic mushroom, but if it was quite distant, would not have understood what was happening. Gli effetti potevano essere immediati e a lunga scadenza. The effects could be immediate and long-term.

    Ma nel 1991 un altra arma fa il suo debutto sul campo di battaglia: l’uranio impoverito But in 1991 another weapon makes its debut on the battlefield: depleted uranium

    Durante Desert Storm per la prima volta sono stati usati proiettili all’ uranio impoverito perche? During Desert Storm for the first time bullets were used all ‘because depleted uranium?
    L’uranio impoverito el’ uranio non impoverito, entrambi mostrano una sorta di firma radioattiva che poteva permettere di confonderli uno con l’altro, di scambiarli l’uno con l’altro, inoltre con l’uranio impoverito, gli effetti immediati che vengono provocati sugli individui, sui palazzi, sui veicoli, imitano in qualche modo gli effetti che vengono provocati da una esplosione nucleare più grande come l’essicazione dei corpi, l’immediata distruzione delle strade, la perdita di sangue dagli occhi e dal naso. Le radiazioni rilasciate da piccoli proiettili all uranio impoverito sono anche esse sempre presenti, ma se questi proiettili vengono usati ripetutamente come ad esempio nelle mitragliatrici dell’aereo A 10, un proiettile dopo l’altro, uno dopo l’ altro, provocano un forte impatto di radiazioni, non solo nelle polveri che rilasciano, ma nelle radiazioni liberate dalle esplosione dei proiettili . The depleted uranium and ‘depleted uranium does not, both show a kind of radioactive signature that could afford to confuse with each other, to exchange them with one another, also with depleted uranium, the immediate effects that are caused on individuals, on buildings, vehicles, in some ways mimic the effects that are caused by a nuclear explosion as the largest drying of the bodies, the immediate destruction of roads, the loss of blood from the eyes and nose. The small radiation released by depleted uranium projectiles all they are always present, but if these projectiles are used repeatedly, such as machine guns in the air 10, a bullet after another, one after the ‘other, causing a strong impact radiation, not only in the dust emit, but the radiation released by the explosion of bullets.

    -Poteva servire a coprire? -Could serve to cover?
    Poteva coprire praticamente tutto quello che avveniva Could cover virtually everything that happened

    Se fosse fondata la denuncia del veterano jim brown, quale potrebbe essere stato l’evento che ha convinto l’amministrazione americana ad usare una mini atomica proprio l’ultimo giorno di guerra? possiamo solo fare un’ipotesi: 2 giorni prima della ipotetica decisione di sganciare una bomba atomica, il 25 febbraio , un missile scud lanciato dagli iracheni riuscì a colpire la base americana di Dhahran in Arabia Saudita uccidendo 28 militari americani e ferendone 99. Questo provocò un forte reazione americana : nella notte tra il 26 ed il 27 di febbraio fu distrutta una intera colonna di macchine di fuggitivi appena oltre il confine del kuwait . If the complaint was based veteran Jim Brown, which may have been the event that convinced the American administration to use a mini atomic its last day of the war can only make a hypothesis: 2 days before the hypothetical decision release of an atomic bomb, February 25, a Scud missile launched by Iraqis managed to hit the American base in Dhahran in Saudi Arabia killing 28 American soldiers and wounding 99. This provoked a strong reaction American in the night between 26 and 27 February was destroyed an entire column machines fugitives just across the border of kuwait. potrebbe non essere stata l’unica azione di ritorsione si tratta di un’ipotesi azzardata ma la politica dell’ amministrazione americana nel 91 è stata volutamente ambigua : may not have been the only act of retaliation is a hypothesis but risky policy of ‘American administration in 91 was deliberately ambiguous:

    -Ci sono dei testimoni? -Are there any witnesses?
    Ci sono testimoni, io personalmente ho parlato con persone che si trovavano sul posto nel periodo in cui questo è successo , so di altre persone che hanno parlato con altre persone- lo so che sembra strano, ma questo è il modo in cui funziona la intelligence comunity : si sente una informazione da un individuo, la si verifica con un altro e alla fine si butta fuori l’ intero dettaglio e si raccoglie la storia completa. There are witnesses, I have personally talked to people who were on site during the period in which this happened, so other people who have talked with other people-I know that seems strange, but this is the way it does the intelligence community: you hear information from an individual, the occurs with another and eventually threw himself off the ‘full detail and collect the full story. Quando è coinvolto il governo , non esiste un governo al mondo che ammetterà mai di avere fatto nulla di questo genere. When the government is involved, there is no world government to admit that you have never done anything like this.

    -Come è venuto a saperlo? -How did you know?
    L’ organizzazione che ho creato che si chiama GULF WATCH Intelligence Networking System, noi abbiamo provato per molti anni a raccogliere queste informazioni per farle diventare pubbliche ed impedire che possa succedere questo di nuovo , perché ti posso garantire che se sono riusciti a passarla liscia su questo argomento nel 91, l’hanno passata liscia anche nel 2002 e continueranno a passarla liscia finché gli verrà permesso di fare questo e questo deve finire L ‘organization that I created which is called GULF WATCH Intelligence Networking System, we have tried for many years to collect this information for them to become public and prevent this could happen again, because you can guarantee that if they succeeded in passing on smooth this in 91, have gone smoother in 2002 and continue until a smooth pass will be allowed to do this and this must stop

    Prima di mandare in onda questa intervista abbiamo informato il Dipartimento della difesa che un veterano dell esercito americano ci aveva raccontato che una minibomba nucleare era stata usata durante desert storm, ci hanno chiesto delucidazioni sul giorno in cui sarebbe successo e ci hanno inviato il seguente comunicato: Before you send broadcast this interview we have informed the Defense Department that a veteran of the U.S. army had told us that a nuclear minibomba had been used during desert storm, we have requested clarification on the day that would have happened and we have sent the following communiqué :

    Durante la guerra del Golfo del 1991 sono state usate solo armi convenzionali , Gli Stati Uniti hanno un certo numero di munizioni che hanno una capacità esplosiva di oltre 5000 pound (duemila tonnellate), non è possibile per noi confermare il preciso incidente al quale vi riferite , ma se una bomba potente fosse stata sganciata in quel luogo è ragionevole supporre che la detonazione sarebbe stata registrata dalle attrezzature di rilevamento sismografico. Di nuovo sono state utilizzate solo munizioni convenzionali durante la guerra del golfo del 1991. During the Gulf War of 1991 were used only conventional weapons, The United States has a number of munitions that have an explosive capacity of over 5,000 pound (two thousand tonnes), it is not possible for us to confirm the specific incident to which you refer But if a powerful bomb had been released there is reasonable to assume that the detonation was recorded by detection equipment sismografico. Again have been used only conventional munitions during the Gulf War of 1991.

    In un lettera successiva il Dipartimento della Difesa ci informa che potrebbe essere stata utilizzata la bomba BLU-82 che ha una capacità esplosiva di circa 7000 tonnellate e ribadisce che sono state utilizzate solo armi convenzionali. In a subsequent letter the Department of Defense announced that there may have been used to bomb BLU-82 that has an explosive capacity of about 7000 tonnes and reiterates that have been used only conventional weapons. La bomba BLU-82 detta anche madre di tutte le bombe o taglia margherite facendo esplodere di ossigeno idrogeno ed altri elementi nell’ aria e non sottoterra produce però una maglitudo 3 scala Richter e non 4.2 come appare nei dati sismici The bomb BLU-82 also known as mother of all bombs or by exploding daisies size of oxygen and hydrogen elements in others’ air and not underground but produces a maglitudo 3 Richter scale and not 4.2 as it appears in seismic data

    JIM BROWN Jim Brown

    Queste bombe venivano usate contemporaneamente con altre testate: l’FI, le bombe a aereosol esplosivo, conosciute anche come MOEB, madre di tutte le bombe. These bombs were used simultaneously with other titles: the FI, the aerosol explosive bombs, also known as MOEB, the mother of all bombs.

    La differenza principale tra le due è che la MOEB, o la bomba FI, hanno gli stessi effetti di una bomba nucleare, possono anche causare l’effetto di un fungo atomico, ma non c’è inquinamento radiattivo. The main difference between the two is that the MOEB, or the bomb FI, have the same effects of a nuclear bomb, may also cause the effect of an atomic mushroom, but there is no radiative pollution. Mentre il problema con una testata ucleare è che quando esplode non hai solo la detonazione ma rimangono delle fuoriuscite di inquinamento radiattivo. While the problem with a header ucleare is that explodes when you have not only remain but the detonation of radiative pollution spills. Questa non è una cosa che semplicemente accade e poi passa, è una cosa che succede e resta. This is not something that just happens and then goes, is something that happens and remains. Inoltre, c’è una questione generazionale che si pone. Moreover, there is a generational issue that arises.

    Il racconto di Jim Brown è tanto agghiacciante quanto al momento privo di tutte quelle conferme che possano certificarne la veridicità la sua tesi che l’suo dell’uranio impoverito abbia potuto coprire l’esplosione di un’atomica resta una pura ipotesi che tuttavia doverosamente registriamo attenendoci ad una sorta di “principio di precauzione : quando un’ipotesi, non palesemente falsa, è di così drammatica rilevanza sociale, parlarne è molto meglio che tacerne aspettando anche perchè molte persone e troppi bambini si sono ammalati dopo “Desert Storm” nella zona intorno a Basra. Siamo riusciti a contattare durante una conferenza ad Instambul il dott Jawad al ali responsabile della divisione oncologica dell’ ospedale di Basra, autore di diverse ricerche su la radioattività nella città. The story of Jim Brown is as chilling as when devoid of all those confirmations that can certify the veracity of its argument that its depleted uranium could cover the explosion of un’atomica remains a mere hypothesis but dutiful record adhere to a sort of “precautionary principle: when a hypothesis, not blatantly false, is so dramatic social relevance, talk is much better than waiting tacerne also because many people and too many children were sick after” Desert Storm “in the area around Basra. We were able to contact during a conference at Instambul Dr Jawad al ali responsible for the division of cancer ‘hospital in Basra, author of several research on radioactivity in the city.

    La storia delle radiazioni in Bassora è cominciata durante la prima guerra del golfo nel 1991 quando circa 300 tonnellate di proiettili e bombe all’uranio impoverito sono state sganciate su Bassora e questo ha portato alla moltiplicazione del livello delle radiazioni rispetto a quello di sfondo che a Bassora era molto basso. The history of radiation in Basra began during the first Gulf War in 1991 when some 300 tons of bullets and depleted uranium bombs were dropped on Basra and this led to the multiplication of the level of radiation than a background Basra was very low.

    E’ stato l’attacco più aggressivo quello del 1991, hanno distrutto completamente le infrastrutture del Paese, hanno distrutto tutti i ponti e non era possibile viaggiare da Basra a Bagdad . It ‘been the most aggressive that in 1991, have completely destroyed the infrastructure of the country, have destroyed all the bridges and it was not possible to travel from Basra to Baghdad. Il problema si è ripetuto nel 2003 e questa volta centinaia di tonnellate di Uranio impoverito sono state scaricate di nuovo sulla popolazione civile in aree dove abitava solo gente comune e questo ha provocato nuovi problemi cioè l’aumento dei tumori,l’aumento di malformazioni congenite come sapete il tempo di decadimento della radioattività dell’uranio è di 4,5 bilioni di anni, il problema si configura dunque come un tentativo di uccidere la popolazione irachena tramite l’avvelenamento del suolo e delle risorse idriche dell’Iraq per milioni di anni. The problem is repeated in 2003 and this time hundreds of tons of depleted uranium have been dumped back on the civilian population in areas where people lived alone and this has caused new problems that the increase in cancer, the increase in congenital malformations as you know the time decay of radioactive uranium is 4.5 billion years, the problem is therefore as an attempt to kill the Iraqi people through the soil and poisoning water resources of Iraq for millions of years .

    – E’ difficile fare ricerca sulla radioattività a Basra? – It ‘s difficult to do research on radioactivity in Basra?
    Non vogliono che nessuno parli di radiazioni eccetto i portavoce ufficiali e noi non lo siamo, possiamo fare ricerche sulla diffusione del cancro ma non possiamo fare studi sui fattori di rischio, non danno fondi per nessuna di queste ricerche, puoi fare ricerche epidemiologiche o cliniche ma non ricerche su radiazioni o relative a questo settore They do not want anyone talking about radiation except for official spokesman us and we are not, we can do research on the prevalence of cancer but can not do studies on risk factors, they do not give money to any of these queries, you can do clinical or epidemiological research but no research on radiation or relating to this sector

    Fare indagini sulle radiazioni in Iraq è difficile non solo in Iraq ma anche in Italia sentiamo l’ esperienza dell’allora Ministro all’ambiente Gianni Mattioli Do surveys of radiation in Iraq is difficult not only in Iraq but also in Italy feel ‘s experience to the then Minister Gianni Mattioli


    E’ nel gennaio del 2001 che chiede di incontrarmi il Ministro della sanità iracheno Mubarak, nel corso dell’incontro Mubarak mi presenta gli elementi per una situazione davvero grave per zone che erano state bombardate con proiettili all uranio impoverito, la richiesta da parte del ministro Mubarak è che l’Italia collabori ad una ricerca epidemiologica per mettere in evidenza la dimensione della problematica, la individuazione delle zone ma anche possibilità in qualche modo di innescare salvaguardia. E ‘in January 2001 asking to meet the Iraqi Health Minister Mubarak, Mubarak during the meeting I presented the elements for a really serious situation for areas that were bombed with depleted uranium bullets all, the request by the Minister Mubarak is that Italy will work for epidemiological research to demonstrate the size of the problem, the identification of possible areas but also in some way to trigger safeguards. Io venni a sapere che c’era una precisa obiezione, un vero e proprio divieto da parte dell’Amministrazione atlantica, del Patto Atlantico I came to know that there was a specific objection, a real ban on the part of the Atlantic, the Atlantic Pact

    Ma nonostante i divieti di svolgere ricerche i dati sugli effetti delle armi utilizzate a Basra con gli anni cominciano drammaticamente ad emergere But despite the prohibitions of research data on the effects of the weapons used in Basra over the years are beginning to emerge dramatically
    Quest grafico mostra l’aumento della mortalità a causa di tumori a Basra che è aumentato in modo significativo e nel 2001 ha superato il numero di 600 morti all‘anno a causa di tumori, nel 1989 i morti per tumore erano solo 34.Per quanto riguarda le foto, ho collezionato le foto dei casi più strani come l’istiocitoma fibroso maligno sono tumori molto rari e sono strettamente associati alle radiazioni, sono causati dalle radiazioni cosi ho documentato con le foto quei tumori. This chart shows the increase in mortality due to cancer in Basra that has risen significantly in 2001 and has exceeded the number of 600 deaths per year due to cancer in 1989 cancer-related deaths were just as 34.Per respect to photos, I have collected photos of the strangest cases like istiocitoma malignant fibrous tumors are very rare and are closely associated with radiation, are caused by radiation so I documented with pictures these tumors.

    Ho collezionato foto di bambini che hanno tumori , perche i tumori sembrano avere cambiato gruppi di età in cui si manifestano , alcuni tumori che prima si manifestavano in pazienti anziani ora si manifestano in paziegiovanissimi di soli sei anni, c’è stato uno slittamenteo di tipologie di tumori da fascie di eta di pazienti maturi a bambini sotto i dieci anni e questo è rarissssimo e così come è rarissimo che si manifesti tumore all apparato linfatico di bambini sotto i dieci anni sono casi rarisimi. I have collected photos of children who have cancer because the tumors appear to have changed age groups where they occur, some tumors that are first expressed in elderly hour paziegiovanissimi occur in only six years, there has been a kind of slittamenteo cancer by age bracket mature patients to children under ten years and this is rarissssimo and as it is rare that it occurs all apparatus lymphatic cancer in children under ten years rarisimi cases.

    Le altre foto sono foto di famiglie moglie e marito che hanno avuto piu di un caso di tumore nella stessa famiglia, ho studiato circa 31 casi di questo genere con più di un parente affetto dal tumore nella stessa famiglia e le famiglie sono aumentate fino a 71, è moltl raro che una famiglia abbia due casi di tumore Perché avviene che tutti e due son affetti da tumore? The other pictures are photos of families husband and wife who have had more than one case of cancer in the same family, I studied about 31 cases of this kind with more than one relative affected by cancer in the same family and families have increased up to 71 , Moltl is rare that a family has two cases of cancer that occurs Why all son and two suffering from cancer?

    Questa mappa mostra la distribuzione di quelle famiglie che hanno almeno due malati di cancro , 21 famiglie si trovano nella area centrale di Basra, 7 nell’area Nord ed una in quella Ovest e 2 nella zona sud est This map shows the distribution of those families who have at least two cancer patients, 21 families are in the area of central Basra, 7 in the North and one in the West and 2 in the south east

    Questa e la mappa della distribuzione percentuale dei cinque tumori più comuni This is the map of the distribution percentage of the five most common cancers

    Gli effetti disastrosi della guerra a Basra sono evidenti, tra le cause probabili anche le radiazioni , per il dottor Jawad provocate dall’uranio impoverito. The disastrous effects of war in Basra are evident among the likely causes the radiation, Dr. Jawad caused dall’uranio uranium. quello che racconta Brown, e cioè che le armi ad uranio impoverito celassero l’uso di una bambo atomica, lo ripetiamo ancora una volta, non che una sua ipotesi. quello che e? what Brown says, that the depleted uranium weapons celassero the use of an atomic Bambo, we repeat once again that not a hypothesis. and what? certo, invece, e’ che nel 1991 le armi all’ uranio vengono sdoganate, i proiettili all’uranio impoverito entrano a far parte degli arsenali della nato di Israele della Russia e della Cina e di altri paesi, e si affiancano alle bombe nucleari che sono già negli arsenali americani, inglesi, francesi, israeliani, russi , cinesi, indiani e pachistani e di altri paesi, pronte ad essere utilizzate sul campo. certain, however, and ‘that in 1991 all the weapons’ are cleared uranium, depleted uranium projectiles becoming part of the arsenals of Israel born in Russia and China and other countries, and is flanked to the nuclear bombs that are already in the arsenals Americans, British, French, Israelis, Russians, Chinese, Indians and Pakistanis and other countries, ready for use in the field. davanti a questa, che è già ora una realtà spaventosa, non chiudiamo gli occhi davanti alle immagini di alcune delle vittime che il dott Jawadi ha avuto in cura before this, which is now a frightening reality, not close our eyes to the images of some of the victims that Dr Jawad has been in care

    Questa è Ali Isra ha 15 anni e soffriva di leucemia acuta ed è morta a causa della leucemia. This is Ali Isra 15 years and has suffered from acute leukemia and died because of leukemia.

    Questa è Wala Habit Mosan, ha 5 anni ha un tumore alle ovaie, che è molto raro a questa età , è una malattie delle donne di mezza eta. This is Wala Habit Mosan, has 5 years has ovarian cancer, which is very rare at this age, is a disease of women in middle age.

    Questa è una donna anziana con un tumore molto grosso ai linfonodi del collo e nella parte alta del torace This is an old woman with a very large cancer of the lymph nodes in the neck and upper chest

    Questo bambino che ha solo 5 anni, ha un Non Hodgkins linfoma che è raro sotto i dieci anni ed è morto il primo giorno di ammissione all’ospedale. This child has only 5 years, has not Hodgkins lymphoma that is rare in the ten years and died on the first day of admission to the hospital.

    Questo ragazzo ha 14 anni si chiama Leiv, ha un tumore alle ossa, il tumore si è diffuso al torace ed è morto per questa ragione . This guy has 14 years called Leiva, has bone cancer, the cancer has spread to the chest and died for this reason.

    Questa bimba ha 3 anni ha un linfoma Non Hodgkins che molto raro a questa età, è morta a causa di questo tumore dopo una operazione al torace. This little girl was 3 years has not Hodgkins lymphoma that very rare at this age, died because of this cancer after a chest operation.

    Questa signora ha un tumore alle ossa, alla mascella, era una rifugiata in Iran e poi viveva nella zona attorno a Basra. This lady has a bone tumor, the jaw, was a refugee in Iran and lived in the area around Basra.

    Questa giovane, Sheda ha 12 anni, ha un tumore alle ossa, il tumore si è diffuso le è stato tagliato un braccio , è morta per questi tumori This young, Sheda has 12 years, has bone cancer, the cancer has spread has been cut off an arm, died of the tumors

    Questo ha una testa molto grossa piena di liquido sono foto simili a quelle di Hiroshima dopo l esplosione della bomba atomica This has a very large head filled with liquid are similar to those photos of Hiroshima after the atomic bomb explosion

    JIM BROWN Jim Brown

    -pensa che l’abbiano usata altre volte? -thought to have used other times?
    In Afghanistan nel 2002 In Afghanistan in 2002

    -Può essere più specifico sulle date -Can be more specific on dates
    da 1 al 3 Marzo from 1-3 March

    Invitiamo i nostri colleghi giornalisti di tutto il mondo e le organizzazioni internazionali preposte al monitoraggio dell’attività nucleare nel pianeta a collaborare nella verifica di queste notizie. We urge our fellow journalists from around the world and international organizations responsible for monitoring nuclear activity in the world to cooperate in the verification of these reports.

    “A” is for Allah, “J” is for jihad

    afgh-textbook-jihad“A” is for Allah, “J” is for jihad

    By Davis, Craig

    Craig Davis is a dual Ph.D. candidate in the departments of Near Eastern Languages and Cultures and Religious Studies at Indiana University, Bloomington. He conducted fieldwork on Afghan education in Afghanistan and Pakistan in 1999-2000, as a David L. Boren graduate fellow.

    In the late 1980s

    and early 1990s, the Education Center for Afghanistan, located in Peshawar, Pakistan, and operated by the Afghan mujahidin (holy warriors), published a series of primary education textbooks replete with images of Islamic militancy. These schoolbooks provided the mujahidin (who, after a ten-year struggle, drove the Soviet occupying forces from Afghanistan in 1989) with a medium for promoting political propaganda and inculcating values of Islamic militancy into a new generation of holy warriors prepared to conduct jihad against the enemies of Islam. Consider the following introduction to the Persian alphabet in a first-grade language arts book:

    Alif [is for] Allah.

    Allah is one.

    Bi [is for] Father (baba).

    Father goes to the mosque…

    Pi [is for] Five (panj).

    Islam has five pillars…

    Ti [is for] Rifle (tufang).

    Javad obtains rifles for the Mujahidin…

    Jim [is for] Jihad.

    Jihad is an obligation. My mom went to the jihad. Our brother gave water to the Mujahidin…

    Dal [is for] Religion (din).

    Our religion is Islam. The Russians are the enemies of the religion of Islam…

    Zhi [is for] Good news (muzhdih).

    The Mujahidin missiles rain down like dew on the Russians. My brother gave me good news that the Russians in our country taste defeat…

    Shin [is for] Shakir.

    Shakir conducts jihad with the sword. God becomes happy with the defeat of the Russians…

    Zal [is for] Oppression (zulm).

    Oppression is forbidden. The Russians are oppressors. We perform jihad against the oppressors…

    Vav [is for] Nation (vatn).

    Our nation is Afghanistan…. The Mujahidin made our country famous…. Our Muslim people are defeating the communists. The Mujahidin are making our dear country free.

    As in this passage, the promotion of violence for the sake of Islam is the predominate theme throughout the mujahidin textbook series in both mathematics and language arts for grades one through six.

    Although these violent images were officially edited out of the schoolbooks in 1992, my fieldwork in Afghanistan and among the Afghan refugee population in Pakistan in 1999 and 2000 revealed that the unedited versions of these textbooks were still in use in both countries. Aid workers reported that the unedited versions promoting violence occasionally surfaced in classrooms in Pakistan and were sanctioned by the Taliban government in Afghanistan. Peshawar’s secondhand bookshops regularly stocked the old textbooks, which are filled with messages of Islamic militancy and illustrations of tanks, rocket launchers, and automatic weapons.

    When I visited Kabul, Afghanistan’s capital, in May 2000, I discovered that the stores stocking Taliban-approved textbooks were selling freshly printed copies of the old, unrevised mujahidin texts. Reports coming out of Kabul confirm the continued use of these schoolbooks, even as the new interim government assumed power. These textbooks glorify martyrdom, celebrate jihad, and speak of execution of “the enemy.” However, such messages and images of violence aimed at children are by no means a recent phenomenon. Consider this poem from a first-grade language arts textbook, published in 1970:

    On the road

    to our independence,

    Our bodies, our heads, our possessions,

    We will sacrifice,

    We will sacrifice.

    If, with designs on our land,

    Our dirty enemies

    Come forward one step,

    We will cut off their feet,

    We will cut off their legs,

    We will cut off their legs.

    If, in the direction of our land,

    If, in the direction of our land,

    The unjust enemy

    If he casts a sharp glance,

    We will pluck out his eyes,

    We will pluck out his eyes.

    A joke in fifth-grade language-arts schoolbook from the same period displays a macabre sense of humor: A boy returning from war was asked, “What did you do in the war?” He answered, “I cut both legs off an enemy at the knees.” When asked why he did not cut off the enemy’s head, the boy answered, “Someone else had already cut it off.”

    These are but two instances in which educational materials were used to train young minds in a fanatical form of loyalty to the nation. The hostile imagery was part of the official curriculum during the reign (1933-73) of King Zahir Shah, the 88-year-old exile who has lived in Rome since 1973 and to whom many Afghans still turn for a sense of legitimacy and stability.

    A new series of Afghan textbooks was developed during the period of communist government in Afghanistan, which stretched from 1978 under Nur Muhammad Taraki’s rule–and the subsequent Soviet invasion in 1979–to Muhammad Nagibullah’s fall in 1992. These textbooks promoted Marxist ideology within an Afghan cultural context. In “Martyrs,” a poem printed in a fourth-grade textbook, the students learned that they were the “martyrs of Western oppression.” Martyrdom and sacrifice were stressed as necessary components of the communist revolution and resistance against the enemy: “agents of the British,” “agents of colonialism,” and “agents of Western oppression.” These all were euphemisms for the mujahidin, who formed the militant resistance against the communist government after the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan in December 1979. Ironically, the term “mujahidin” was avoided in the textbooks of the time.

    This series was still in limited use in May 2000 in some Afghan schools in the region, including in Estiqlal Lycee, a small coeducational Afghan elementary school in Islamabad, Pakistan. Almost half of the 236 students then at the lycee were girls, many of whom had come from Afghanistan after 1996, when the Taliban seized power and implemented policies that denied girls access to education past grade three.

    One reason the school uses these books may be because women tend to fare better in the communist-era textbooks than in most of the other series. The textbooks attempted to appeal to young Afghan girls by stressing the important role that women played in the April Revolution, as the Afghan communist revolution was called. Mothers, female combatants, and the women of the proletariat were elevated to hero status at the expense of the revolution’s enemies: “Eternal glory to the nation’s heroic martyrs who have sacrificed their own lives in the struggle against the enemies of the April Revolution and of the people of Afghanistan…. Women combatants of the nation! Become active participants in the social, political, and economic life of the homeland, and strengthen…the April Revolution…. Boundless glory to the mothers of the heroes and the proletariat women of the nation.”

    Ironically, the emphasis these textbooks placed on women’s participation in Afghanistan’s communist revolution may have played into the hands of the Islamic extremists who stripped Afghan women of their rights when they gained control of the country.

    Far more violent, religiously oriented, and potentially damaging to Afghan children was the next generation of textbooks, developed in Peshawar in the late 1980s by a committee of Afghan educators under the auspices of the seven-party alliance of mujahidin, who formed the legitimate political and military resistance to the Soviet-backed regime in Kabul. These textbooks aimed both to counterbalance the Marxist ideology of the communist series and to indoctrinate young Afghan children in Islamic militancy. Thus this subtraction problem, from a third-grade mathematics textbook: “One group of mujahidin attack 50 Russian soldiers. In that attack 20 Russians were killed. How many Russians fled?”

    A fourth-grade mathematics textbook poses the following problem: “The speed of a Kalashnikov bullet is 800 meters per second. If a Russian is at a distance of 3,200 meters from a mujahid, and that mujahid aims at the Russian’s head, calculate how many seconds it will take for the bullet to strike the Russian in the forehead.”

    Another irony is that this textbook series was underwritten by U.S. grants. One of the responsibilities of the mujahidin-operated Education Center for Afghanistan was to write, print, and distribute textbooks. The ECA was funded by the Education Program for Afghanistan at the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO), under a $50 million grant from the United States Agency for International Development that ran from September 1986 through June 1994. The UNO program staff chose to ignore the images of Islamic militancy in the children’s textbooks during the first five years of the program.

    Raheem Yaseer, an Afghan educator who worked at the UNO office in Peshawar during the early years of the program and now acts as the campus coordinator for the program in Omaha, defends the decision to allow the mujahidin parties to develop the violent content of the textbooks free of outside intervention. The staff, he says, was acutely aware of Afghan “religious and cultural sensitivities” during the war with the Soviets. Moreover, the University of Nebraska did not wish to be seen as imposing American values on Afghan educators. 1

    After the Soviet forces withdrew from Afghanistan, the Education Program for Afghanistan–under increasing pressure from Afghan parents and teachers, and various aid organizations–decided in 1991 to remove the militant images from the mujahidin textbook series. The revision process was completed by 1992. Educators commonly refer to the edited versions as the revised UNO textbooks, which are widely used in Pakistan and Afghanistan today.

    However, two years ago, Joyce Gachiri, a project officer on education for the Afghanistan Country Office of UNICEF located in Islamabad, reported seeing many of the unrevised mujahidin books in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan as well as in the province of Badakhshan, which was then in the hands of the anti-Taliban Northern Alliance. 2 During my visit to Kabul in May 2000, I purchased an entire series of the unrevised textbooks.

    According to Ahmad Shah Durani, the printing press manager at the Agency Coordinating Body for Afghan Relief (ACBAR) in Peshawar–the organization responsible for printing the revised UNO textbooks–the unedited mujahidin textbooks were not printed by ACBAR after 1992. When I confronted him in June 2000 with new copies of the violence-filled unrevised textbooks I had purchased in Kabul, he said that the inferior quality of paper and ink used pointed to an independent printing press in Peshawar.

    The appearance of these unedited textbooks freshly printed in Peshawar and sold at textbook shops in Kabul some eight years after they were to have been replaced suggests that the Taliban wished to inspire a new generation of militants with the message of jihad. But the Taliban, who came to power in 1996, may not be entirely to blame. Between 1992 and 1996, militant factions of mujahidin ruled and battled over Kabul. Thus it is likely that these textbooks never fell out of favor with the mujahidin leadership, who were responsible for the militant content in the first place.

    Much has been written since September 11 about the madrasa (theological school) system of education in Pakistan and Afghanistan. In the wake of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, extremist Muslims in Saudi Arabia and elsewhere helped to fund the madrassas, many of which have become vehicles for inculcating militant values in students. The most violent product of the madrasa system are the Taliban, who promoted absolute theocracy, public militancy, violent repression, and jihad in conjunction with terrorist groups. Even though the Taliban has been crushed, it would be a mistake to underestimate the political force of the madrasa system. Because of the inability of both the Afghan and Pakistani governments to provide universal education within their respective nations, many parents still look to madrassas to fill the void. In other cases, many students attending secular schools in the morning regularly study at madrassas in the afternoon. Recent estimates suggest that between 10 and 15 percent of Pakistan’s 45,000 madrassas promote violence; if true, the next generation of graduates will likely be a political force to be reckoned with.

    One of the greatest challenges to the establishment of a lasting peace in Afghanistan and to the success of representative government there may lie in reforming the country’s educational system. But as the new interim government assumed power in Kabul, the future of Afghan education was unclear. Will the mujahidin, who are once again in a position to influence policy, insist on teaching Islamic militancy to school-children? Will Afghan children once again be exhorted to cut off the legs and pluck out the eyes of their “dirty enemies”? If so, Afghanistan’s road away from violent unrest will be a long one indeed.

    The translations from the Persian for the textbook illustrations were provided by Nahid Seyedsayamdost.


    This essay is drawn from a longer, unpublished analysis, “Nationalism, Revolution, and Jihad: Images of Violence in Afghan Primary Education Textbooks,” the research for which was made possible by a David L. Boren graduate fellowship. The author would like to thank Jamsheed Choksy, Paul Losensky, and M. Nazif Shahrani for their comments and insights.

    1. Interviews with the author, December 5 and 7, 2001.

    2. Conversation with the author, March 30, 2000.

    Illustration (Children with weapons marching to flag of Afghanistan)

    Darkness Visible: The Pentagon Plan to Foment Terrorism is Now in Operation (2005)

    Darkness Visible: The Pentagon Plan to Foment Terrorism is Now in Operation (2005)

    by Chris Floyd

    From the Moscow Times, Jan. 25, 2005. This is the follow-up to “Into the Dark.”

    More than two years ago, we wrote here of a secret Pentagon plan to foment terrorism: sending covert agents to infiltrate terrorist groups and goad them into action – i.e., committing acts of murder and destruction. The purpose was two-fold: first, to bring the terrorist groups into the open, where they could be counterattacked; and second, to justify U.S. military attacks on the countries where the terrorists were operating – attacks which, in the Pentagon’s words, would put those nations’ “sovereignty at risk.” It was a plan that countenanced – indeed, encouraged – the deliberate murder of innocent people and the imposition of U.S. military rule anywhere in the world that American leaders desired.

    This plan is now being activated.

    In fact, it’s being expanded, as the New Yorker’s Seymour Hersh revealed last week. Not only will U.S.-directed agents infiltrate existing terrorist groups and provoke them into action; the Pentagon itself will create its own terrorist groups and “death squads.” After establishing their terrorist “credentials” through various atrocities and crimes, these American-run groups will then be able to ally with – and ultimately undermine – existing terrorist groups.

    Top-level officials in the Pentagon, the U.S. intelligence services and the Bush administration confirmed to Hersh that the plan is going forward, under the direction of Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld – just as we noted here in November 2002. Through a series of secret executive orders, George W. Bush has given Rumsfeld the authority to turn the entire world into “a global free-fire zone,” a top Pentagon adviser says. These secret operations will be carried out with virtually no oversight; in many cases, even the top military commanders in the affected regions will not be told about them. The American people, of course, will never know what’s being done in their name.

    The covert units – including the Pentagon-funded terrorist groups and hit squads – will be operating outside all constraints of law and morality. “We’re going to be riding with the bad boys,” one insider told Hersh. Another likened it to the palmy days of the Reagan-Bush years: “Do you remember the right-wing execution squads in El Salvador? We founded them and we financed them. The objective now is to recruit locals in any area we want. And we aren’t going to tell Congress about it.” Indeed, we reported here last summer that Bush has already budgeted $500 million to fund local paramilitaries and guerrilla groups in the most volatile areas of the world, a measure guaranteed to produce needless bloodshed, destruction and suffering for innocent people already ravaged by conflict.

    Incredibly, as Hersh notes, the Bushists are now openly citing a sinister role model for their campaign: Britain’s brutal repression of the Mau Mau in Kenya during the 1950s, when British forces set up concentration camps, created their own terrorist groups and killed thousands of innocent civilians in putting down an “insurgency” against their colonial rule. And in fact, Rumsfeld and other Bush officials increasingly talk of combating not just terrorism but a “global insurgency” – as if the whole world is now an American colony, filled with recalcitrant “natives” rising up against their rightful masters.

    The activation of the Pentagon terrorist operation is part of Bush’s second-term expansion of the “war on terror.” Despite some obfuscating rhetoric about “diplomacy,” the Bush regime is pressing ahead with a hard-line strategy aimed at opening new military fronts in the “global free-fire zone.” Any dissenting voices within the government are being ruthlessly purged. The Pentagon’s secret forces are set for operations in at least 10 countries, and Bush insiders “repeatedly” told Hersh that “Iran is the next strategic target.”

    Iran has long been a focus of the small clique of “global dominationists” – led by Rumsfeld, Paul Wolfowitz, Dick Cheney and their acolytes – who engineered the invasion of Iraq. This group is determined to “whack Iran,” as one insider put it, and they’re not at all discouraged by the debacle in Iraq; indeed, to them it’s a rousing success. Their first objective – openly stated years ago, before Bush took office – was the overthrow of Saddam’s regime and the planting of a U.S. “military footprint” in Iraq. This has now been done. The fact that it has plunged the Iraqi people into a hell of violence, chaos, terror and extremism is of no real concern to the clique. Their lofty rhetoric about “freedom” and “liberation” is meaningless sham, shuck and jive for the rubes. By the admission of the clique’s own publications, they seek strategic control over the world’s energy resources in order to preserve and expand American geopolitical and economic hegemony in the new century. Everything else – including the security of the American people, put at increasing risk by the clique’s reckless policies – is of secondary importance.

    U.S. forces are already conducting military reconnaissance inside Iran in preparation for strikes on alleged nuclear weapons facilities, Hersh reports. The Pentagon is feverishly updating war plans for a “maximum ground and air invasion of Iran,” incorporating the new staging areas now available in Iraq, Afghanistan and Pakistan, while employing an Iranian terrorist group, MEK, to launch covert ops and terrorist acts against Tehran. MEK was once given sanctuary by Saddam Hussein, who used the group as a brutal enforcer against Kurd and Shiite insurgents. Now Bush, “riding with the bad boys,” has embraced the MEK murderers as his own.

    In their ignorance and arrogance, the Bushists will almost certainly strike at Iran – despite the fact that even Iranian dissidents support the effort to make their nation a nuclear power and would join the mullahs in retaliation. The result will be a conflict far surpassing the horror and magnitude of the Iraq disaster.

    In our original report on the Pentagon’s terror scheme, we wrote: “Bush and his cohorts are plunging the world into an abyss, an endless night of murder and terror – wholesale, retail, state-sponsored, privatized; of fear and degradation, servility, chaos, and the perversion of all that’s best in us.” Now the night has come. Now the United States stands openly – even proudly – for terrorism, torture and the Hitlerian principle of aggressive war. America has fallen into the pit – and the hopes of the world go with it.

    Into the Dark: The Pentagon Plan to Foment Terrorism

    Into the Dark: The Pentagon Plan to Foment Terrorism

    by Chris Floyd

    From the Moscow Times, Nov. 1, 2002. This piece was chosen as number 4 in Project Censored’s “Top Censored Stories of 2002.”

    “This age: layers of lime harden in the sick son’s blood…
    There’s nowhere to run from the tyrant-epoch…
    Who else will you kill? Who else glorify?
    What other lies will you invent?”

    — Osip Mandelshtam, “1 January 1924”

    This column stands foursquare with the Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld, U.S. Secretary of Defense, when he warns that there will be more terrorist attacks against the American people and civilization at large. We know, as does the Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld, U.S. Secretary of Defense, that this statement is an incontrovertible fact, a matter of scientific certainty. And how can we and the Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld, U.S. Secretary of Defense, be so sure that there will be more terrorist attacks against the American people and civilization at large?

    Because these attacks will be instigated at the order of the Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld, U.S. Secretary of Defense.

    This astonishing admission was buried deep in a story which was itself submerged by mounds of gray newsprint and glossy underwear ads in last Sunday’s Los Angeles Times. There – in an article by military analyst William Arkin, detailing the vast expansion of the secret armies being massed by the former Nixon bureaucrat now lording it over the Pentagon – came the revelation of Rumsfeld’s plan to create “a super-Intelligence Support Activity” that will “bring together CIA and military covert action, information warfare, intelligence, and cover and deception.” According to a classified document prepared for Rumsfeld by his Defense Science Board, the new organization – the “Proactive, Preemptive Operations Group (P2OG)” – will carry out secret missions designed to “stimulate reactions” among terrorist groups, provoking them into committing violent acts which would then expose them to “counterattack” by U.S. forces.

    In other words – and let’s say this plainly, clearly and soberly, so that no one can mistake the intention of Rumsfeld’s plan – the United States government is planning to use “cover and deception” and secret military operations to provoke murderous terrorist attacks on innocent people. Let’s say it again: Donald Rumsfeld, Dick Cheney, George W. Bush and the other members of the unelected regime in Washington plan to deliberately foment the murder of innocent people – your family, your friends, your lovers, you – in order to further their geopolitical ambitions.

    For P2OG is not designed solely to flush out terrorists and bring them to justice – a laudable goal in itself, although the Rumsfeld way of combating terrorism by causing it is pure moral lunacy. (Or should we use the Regime’s own preferred terminology and just call it “evil”?) No, it seems the Pee-Twos have bigger fish to fry. Once they have sparked terrorists into action – by killing their family members? luring them with loot? fueling them with drugs? plying them with jihad propaganda? messing with their mamas? or with agents provocateurs, perhaps, who infiltrate groups then plan and direct the attacks themselves? – they can then take measures against the “states/sub-state actors accountable” for “harboring” the Rumsfeld-roused gangs. What kind of measures exactly? Well, the classified Pentagon program puts it this way: “Their sovereignty will be at risk.”

    The Pee-Twos will thus come in handy whenever the Regime hankers to add a little oil-laden real estate or a new military base to the Empire’s burgeoning portfolio. Just find a nest of violent malcontents, stir ’em with a stick, and presto: instant “justification” for whatever level of intervention/conquest/rapine you might desire. And what if the territory you fancy doesn’t actually harbor any convenient marauders to use for fun and profit? Well, surely a God-like “super-Intelligence Support Activity” is capable of creation ex nihilo, yes?

    The Rumsfeld-Bush plan to employ murder and terrorism for political, financial and ideological gain does have historical roots (besides al Qaeda, the Stern Gang, the SA, the SS, the KGB, the IRA, the UDF, Eta, Hamas, Shining Path and countless other upholders of Bushian morality, decency and freedom). We refer of course to Operation Northwoods, oft mentioned in these pages: the plan that America’s top military brass presented to President John Kennedy in 1963, calling for a phony terrorist campaign – complete with bombings, hijackings, plane crashes and dead Americans – to provide “justification” for an invasion of Cuba, the Mafia/Corporate fiefdom which had recently been lost to Castro.

    Kennedy rejected the plan, and was killed a few months later. Now Rumsfeld has resurrected Northwoods, but on a far grander scale, with resources at his disposal undreamed of by those brass of yore, with no counterbalancing global rival to restrain him – and with an ignorant, corrupt president who has shown himself all too eager to embrace any means whatsoever that will augment the wealth and power of his own narrow, undemocratic, elitist clique.

    There is genuine transgression here, a stepping-over – deliberately, with open eyes, with forethought, planning, and conscious will – of lines that should never be crossed. Acting in deadly symbiosis with their supposed enemies, the terrorist mafias, Bush and his cohorts are plunging the world into an abyss, an endless night of black ops, retribution, blowback, deceit, of murder and terror – wholesale, retail, state-sponsored, privatized; of fear and degradation, servility, chaos: the perversion of all that’s best in us, of all that we’ve won from the bestiality of our primal nature, all that we’ve raised above the mindless ravening urges and impulses still boiling in the mud of our monkey brains.

    It’s not a fight for freedom; it’s a retreat into darkness.

    And the day will be a long time coming.