Pentagon chief defends arms sales to India, Pakistan

Pentagon chief defends arms sales to India, Pakistan

Defense Secretary Robert Gates says the deals will help the U.S. earn trust in a region where it hopes to avert another war.

By Julian E. Barnes
Reporting from Islamabad, Pakistan – Defense Secretary Robert M. Gates leaned on India and Pakistan during his trip to South Asia this week to set aside a simmering rivalry and confront militant extremists. At the same time, Gates and other U.S. officials pushed arms sales that could fuel the antagonism between the two countries.

Gates’ trip was framed by that apparent contradiction in U.S. policy. On his arrival in Pakistan, a television news interviewer put the question bluntly: “Why re-arm both countries?” The Pentagon chief sidestepped the question.

But Gates and other officials explained afterward that Washington hopes the military cooperation will help the U.S. win the trust it needs to advance its goals in the region. And, besides, they said, the two countries could get weapons elsewhere, so why not from us?

“I think we have to make these decisions judiciously,” Gates said. “But we also do not simply want to turn over these military relationships to other countries who don’t have as many scruples as we do in terms of making these decisions.”

The U.S. has increased annual military aid to Pakistan to about $3 billion a year and taken on controversial projects, such as helping to refurbish and expand Islamabad’s fleet of F-16 fighter jets.

Gates said Thursday that the U.S. also would provide

surveillance drones to the Pakistani military, acceding to a long-standing request.

Two days earlier, Gates praised an expanding arms trade with India, saying that U.S. weapons would give New Delhi “the best products in the world.”

India is also weighing major aircraft purchases, including billions of dollars worth of fighter jets.

Expanding the conventional military power of two sometimes bitter adversaries may not seem like the best strategy for distracting the nations from their rivalry. But U.S. officials see signs that both countries may be starting to trust Washington’s counsel.

After the 2008 terrorist attack in Mumbai, India took U.S. advice against ratcheting up tensions with Pakistan, despite its impatience with the response to the Pakistani-based militant group believed responsible for the strike.

Pakistan, for its part, has taken action against militant groups in its tribal areas. It has 140,000 troops on its western border who have been engaged in a sustained assault on Taliban and Al Qaeda hide-outs since late April.

Military officials said the Pentagon was being careful to not alter the balance of power in South Asia, even when providing F-16s to Pakistan.

“Another squadron of F-16s means they [Pakistan] will lose the next war with India a little slower,” said a U.S. military official in Islamabad, speaking of the arms sales on condition of anonymity. “They are not going to defeat India because we gave them a squadron of F-16s. The military overmatch India enjoys is just too great.”

Washington is sensitive to the risk of dramatically increasing one country’s military prowess beyond the other’s, which would change the calculus and potentially trigger the very war the United States wants to avert.

For example, the United States wants Pakistan to expand its surveillance capability, but it does not want to deliver long-range or heavily armed drones that Pakistani engineers could re-engineer into a platform for nuclear weapons.

Similarly, India covets high-tech fighters, but the United States does not want to offer it stealth jets that could penetrate Pakistani airspace without challenge.

Nonetheless, the technology and logistics agreements that go along with an expanded defense trade will bind the United States and India closer together, officials said.

Likewise, officials believe that providing Pakistan with weapons — even those not specifically intended for counter-insurgency operations — is crucial to Washington’s larger goal of countering Pakistani distrust.

“How do we close the trust deficit? By acting like friends,” the official said. “By being willing to do things to meet their perceived needs, even if it does nothing for us.”

julian.barnes@latimes.com

Gates’ Futile Effort To De-Link Terrorism from Kashmir Issue

[As former head of CIA and key man for anti-Soviet campaign Gates is in a better position than anyone else on the planet to know that the two main Pakistani militant groups, Lashkar e-Taiba and Lashkar e-Jhangvi, cut their chops and became the highly-trained bad boys that they are in Kashmir.  Key leaders of both groups, Ilyas Kashmiri (LET) and Amjad Farooqi (LEJ), relocated from Kashmir to Waziristan to form the most deadly Tribal militant outfits.  LEJ spawned the Pakistani Taliban of Hakeemullah and Baitullah Mehsud, the TTP.  Gates was there when the CIA used the LEJ and others to fight for Bill Clinton in Bosnia, just as he was a witness to the early formation of both the Afghan mujahedeen and the Afghan Taliban, both largely drawn from sectarian parent of LEJ, Sipah e-Sahaba (SSP).

The debate about the “great game” is being turned towards Kashmir, the one place where everyone’s hands are exposed.]

Kashmir dispute no breeding ground for terrorism: Gates

Islamabad, Jan.23 (ANI): US Defence Secretary Robert Gates has rubbished Pakistan’s long standing stance that the unresolved issues like the Kashmir dispute were breeding terrorism and providing food for thought for banned extremist organisations like Al-Qaeda.

Interacting with reporters at the residence of US Ambassador, Anne Patterson, here, Gates said groups like Al-Qaeda are hardly concerned over the long pending Kashmir issue.

“Al Qaeda doesn’t care about Kashmir, what it cares is creating problems and provoking conflict,” Gates said.

Gates’s latest remarks are in addition to his statements, which he gave in New Delhi earlier this week, that Al-Qaeda through its off-shoots such as the Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT), the Tehreek-e-Taliban Pakistan (TTP) and other similar organizations, was trying to destabilize the region by igniting a war between India and Pakistan.

He also blasted people, who divided the terror groups in two groups, saying bifurcating these banned extremist organizations into ‘good and ‘bad’ was a ‘mistaken approach’.

Responding to queries over the Pakistan Army’s decision to not to launch any new offensive against extremists in the next six to twelve months, Gates said:

“Pakistan is a sovereign country and it would make its own decision about what is the best timing for their military operation, when they are going to do it, or whether they are going to do it at all.”

He also clarified that the US Defence Deparment had nothing to do with the controversial private security firm Blackwater’s presence in Pakistan.

“We have no connection with Blackwater in Pakistan.Department of Defence does not use Blackwater in Pakistan. Well, they’re (Blackwater) operating as individual companies here in Pakistan, in Afghanistan and in Iraq,” Gates said.

It is pertinent to mention here that a couple of days ago Gates had admitted the presence of Blackwater and DynCorp in Pakistan. (ANI)

Tensions rise as Israeli Army stages maneuvers on border

[SEE:Report: Hezbollah moves long-range rockets to north Lebanon]

Tensions rise as Israeli Army stages maneuvers on border

By Elias Sakr
Daily Star staff

BEIRUT: Media reports said Friday tensions rose on the Lebanese-Israeli border as the Israeli Army undertook military maneuvers on its northern border, while Hizbullah members were put on high alert, according to the pan-Arab daily Ash-Sharq al-Awsat.

Asked whether Hizbullah members were put on high alert, the party’s spokesman Ibrahim Musawi told The Daily Star on Friday that Hizbullah was always ready to face any aggression but declined to elaborate further.

On Thursday, French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner said that he feared the situation in Iran might prompt officials in Tehran to behave

unpredictably, which could prove dangerous given Hizbullah’s weapons, and could lead to unfortunate events.  Kouchner made his statement at Paris following talks with Lebanese Premier Saad Hariri who expressed fear of an Israeli aggression against Lebanon.

As for Kouchner’s stance, Hizbullah issued a statement on Friday “strongly condemning” the minister’s remarks. “We see the clear [influence] of the Israeli voice and a complete disregard of the history and legacy of France in fighting aggression and occupation.”

Hizbullah said there was a contradiction in the remarks of Kouchner and the reports by UNIFIL peacekeeping forces in the south, about Israeli’s near-daily overflights of Lebanon and other acts.

“This stance [by Kouchner] is an attempt to absolve the Israeli enemy [of guilt] and cover its repeated violations of Lebanese sovereignty. This constitutes protection of the Israeli occupier and an encouragement for it to continue with its violations.”

On the Syrian front, Ash-Sharq al-Awsat reported that Syria called on its fourth reserve brigade which includes Syrian workers in Lebanon.

It added that Syrian sources said Damascus was against any war against any Arab country and particularly Lebanon.

However, a high-ranking Israeli military official denied reports stating that Israel was considering launching a war against Lebanon, while stressing that military maneuvers were part of Israel’s routine defensive exercises, Ash-Sharq al-Awsat reported.

The Israeli official reportedly said that Israel had earlier announced that it would undertake the large-scale military maneuvers in 2010 in order to learn from its experience during the 2006 war against Lebanon.

On the domestic front, Minyeh MP Ahmad Fatfat underlined Friday the importance of denying Israel any pretext which could be exploited to launch an aggression against Lebanon. “Repeated Israeli statements concerning an upcoming war do not come out of a vacuum,” said Fatfat, a Future Movement official.

Tackling Kouchner’s statement, Fatfat said the French foreign minister’s stance could be an attempt to highlight the dangerous regional situation.

“Both Hariri and Kouchner’s statements signal that the region is prone to instability and all parties should be alert during the upcoming period, so as not to give Israel any pretext to launch a devastating war against Lebanon,” Fatfat said.

“Perhaps French Foreign Minister Bernard Kouchner thought it was appropriate to point out dangers based on his political position and relations,” Fatfat added.

Meanwhile, the deputy head of the Higher Shiite Council, Sheikh Abdel-Amir Qabalan, slammed Kouchner’s statement while rejecting “silly donations to the Lebanese Army” by unidentified countries.

Turkey kicks off international meetings on Afghanistan

Turkey kicks off international meetings on Afghanistan

By Simon Cameron-Moore

ISTANBUL (Reuters) – Turkey hosts a meeting of Afghanistan’s neighbors next week to seek a common approach to the conflict that could center on gathering international support for negotiating some kind of peace with the Taliban.

The regional meeting in Istanbul on Tuesday will pave the way for an international conference in London on January 28 that may set a timetable for transferring responsibility for some areas to Afghan control.

Muslim Turkey is also hosting a meeting of the presidents of Afghanistan and Pakistan on Monday, and will bring together intelligence and military officials from the two countries with a history of deep mutual mistrust.

A senior Pakistani official with knowledge of the diplomacy involving multiple governments told Reuters initiatives were underway to begin negotiations with some Taliban and this was likely to surface during the meetings in Istanbul and London.

“The Turks are playing a behind-the-scenes roll patching up relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan,” the official said. “There’s a lot happening behind the scenes that people don’t know about.”

Turkey, a NATO member, has a special relationship with both Afghanistan and Pakistan that can be traced back to the Ottoman Empire’s ties to South and Central Asia, and was using its influence to bring an end to the conflict with the Taliban.

“The Turks are among those working on negotiations with the Taliban — not all the Taliban, it’s being selectively done.”

The Afghans believe Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence service covertly supports Taliban leader Mullah Mohammad Omar, and allows the insurgency to be directed from Pakistani soil.

Pakistan’s military suspect Afghan intelligence of working with old rival India to cause trouble on its western border, and support separatists in the Pakistani province of Baluchistan.

U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates on Thursday urged Pakistan to begin hunting down Afghan Taliban on the border.

Ahmed Rashid, a respected Pakistani journalist and author who is often consulted by Western policymakers, said Karzai would use the Istanbul and London meetings to pitch for support for negotiations to end the Taliban insurgency.

“The key issue at the London conference and the meetings leading up to it will be whether neighboring countries will support dialogue with the Taliban, which Karzai will advocate.”

“Karzai can be expected to set out reasons for a tactical dialogue and for a strategic dialogue with the Taliban leadership.”

SHIFTING POSITIONS?

Karzai has talked of opening negotiations with the Taliban many times in the past, but the insurgency has intensified over the past two years.

Neighbors fear the potential for the conflict in Afghanistan could further destabilize a volatile region; some worry about the presence of U.S. forces and others are concerned over the threat posed by the spread of Islamist militancy.

“There are signs that Iran, India and Russia are shifting their position and would support negotiations with the Taliban, having adamantly opposed them in the past, and that consensus over the need for negotiations is building among countries in the region,” Rashid said.

U.S. President Barack Obama is sending 30,000 extra troops to Afghanistan as part of a strategy to speed up training of Afghan forces and is pressing Karzai to improve governance after his re-election in a fraud-tainted vote last August.

Turkish officials said it was important to look at how Afghanistan’s neighbors could help support stability in Afghanistan and that this was crucial for the London conference.

“It is important to hear the voice of the neighbors. The regional aspect is one of the elements to achieve success and to win the hearts and minds of the Afghans,” a senior Turkish official said.

An EU diplomat in Brussels saw the meetings in Turkey preparing ground for the London conference.

“Clearly there are going to be a lot of contacts among all the players, including the Russians and Turkey, in the run up to the London conference. That’s just part of preparing for a big conference like this, that I think everyone now sees as happening at a crucial time.”

(Additional reporting by Ibon Villelabeitia and Zerin Elci in Ankara, and Luke Baker in Brussels; Editing by Jon Hemming)

The “Leary” Personality Test

Timothy Leary’s Interpersonal Behavior Circle
Personal Inventory

Directions: This sheet contains a list of descriptive words and phrases, which you will use to describe yourself. Read the items quickly and cheek those that are descriptive of yourself at the present time. Leave the answer space blank if an item does not apply to you. First impressions are generally best. If you feel much doubt whether an item applies, leave it blank.

Primary
1 __ Well thought of
2 __ Always giving advice
3 __ Often admired
4 __ Tries to be too successful
33 __ Makes a good impression
34 __ Acts important
35 __ Respected by others
36 __ Expects everyone to admire him
_____
P

5 __ Able to give orders
6 __ Bossy
7 __ Good Leader
8 __ Manages other
37 __ Forceful
38 __ Dominates
39 __ Likes responsibility
40 __ Dictatorial
_____
A

9 __ Self-respecting
10 __ Boastful
11 __ Self-Confident
12 __ Somewhat snobbish
41 __ Independent
42 __ Proud and self-satisfied
43 __ Self-reliant and assertive
44 __ Egotistical and conceited
_____
B

13 __ Able to take care of self
14 __ Thinks only of himself
15 __ Businesslike
16 __ Selfish
45 __ Can be, indifferent to others
46 __ Shrewd and calculating
47 __ Likes to compete with others
48 __ Cold and unfeeling
_____
C

17 __ Can be strict if necessary
18 __ Impatient with others’ mistakes
19 __ Hard boiled when necessary
20 __ Sarcastic
49 __ Firm but just
50 __ Self-seeking
51 __ Stern but just
52 __ Cruel and unkind
_____
D

21 __ Can be frank and honest
22 __ Outspoken
23 __ Irritable
24 __ Frequently angry
53 __ Critical of others
54 __ Often Unfriendly
55 __ Straight forward
56 __ Hard hearted
_____
E

25 __ Can complain if necessary
26 __ Bitter
27 __ Resents being bossed
28 __ Resentful
57 __ Often Gloomy
58 __ Complaining
59 __ Skeptical
60 __ Rebels against everything
_____
F

29 __ Able to doubt others
30 __ Jealous
31 __ Hard to impress
32 __ Stubborn
61 __ Frequently disappointed
62 __ Slow to forgive a wrong
63 __ Touchy and easily hurt
64 __ Distrusts everybody
_____
G

65 __ Able to criticize self
66 __ Self punishing
67 __ Easily embarrassed
68 __ Timid
97 __ Apologetic
98 __ Shy
99 __ Lacks self confidence
100 __ Always ashamed of self
_____
H

69 __ Can be obedient
70 __ Passive and unagressive
71 __ Easily led
72 __ Obeys too willingly
101 __ Usually gives in
102 __ Meek
103 __ Modest
104 __ Spineless
_____
I

73 __ Grateful
74 __ Dependent
75 __ Often helped by others
76 __ Hardly ever talks back
105 __ Admires and imitates others
106 __ Wants to be led
107 __ Very respectful to authority
108 __ Clinging vine
_____
J

77 __ Appreciative
78 __ Lets others make decisions
79 __ Accepts advice readily
80 __ Likes to be taken care of
109 __ Very anxious to be approved of
110 __ Trusting and eager to please
111 __ Easily fooled
112 __ Will believe anyone
_____
K

81 __ Cooperative
82 __ Too easily influenced by friends
83 __ Always pleasant and agreeable
84 __ Wants everyone’s love
113 __ Eager to get along with others
114 __ Will confide in anyone
115 __ Wants everyone to like him
116 __ Agrees with everyone
_____
L

85 __ Friendly
86 __ Fond of everyone
87 __ Sociable and neighborly
88 __ Friendly all the time
117 __ Affectionate and understanding
118 __ Likes everybody
119 __ Warm
120 __ Likes everyone
_____
M

89 __ Considerate
90 __ Forgives anything
91 __ Kind and reassuring
92 __ Too lenient with others
121 __ Encourages others
122 __ Over sympathetic
123 __ Tender and soft hearted
124 __ Tries to comfort everyone
_____
N

93 __ Helpful
94 __ Generous to a fault
95 __ Enjoys taking care of others
96 __ Too willing to give to others
125 __ Big-hearted and unselfish
126 __ Over protective of others
127 __ Gives freely of self
128 __ Spoils people with kindness
_____
O

Directions for Scoring the Leary Interpersonal Behavior Test

  1. The test has a total of 64 points.
  2. Each group (P, A, B, C, D, E, F, G) has a possible total of 8 points.
  3. Test takers check each of the 8 descriptive words/phrases that describe them and count the total of checks for each group. Thus, if group P has 4 checks, the score for P = 4.
  4. On the Interpersonal Behavior Circle the internal circle represents 0, the first concentric circle 2, the next 4, the next 6, and the last 8.
  5. For each pie shaped piece of the pie (P, A, B, C, D, E, F, G), place a dot to represent the number of checks added up for each group (P, A, B, C, D, E, F, G) on the test on the line that represents 2, 4, 6, or 8. If you have uneven numbers of checks, place dots for those numbers (1, 3, 5, 7) in between the concentric lines of the circle.
  6. Connect the dots around the circle to create a geometric shape that defines your predominant areas of interpersonal behavior.
  7. If your score is low (2 – 4), it represents a moderate level on the particular quality. If your score is high (6 – 8), it represents a more extreme level of the behavior in question.

Timothy Leary Interpersonal Behavior Circle

Was Timothy Leary a CIA Agent?

[SEE:  CIA Used LSD To Alter America’s Mind

kennyssideshow— The Riebling article reminded me of the CIA ?? orange sunshine that around was here in the early 70’s and was thought to be spiked with strychnine to ‘intensify’ the experience. Whatever it was ‘contaminated’ with didn’t leave a wanting to do more with most people. The more pure forms of LSD didn’t seem to exist at all after around 74.  SEE:  Owsley “White Lightning” acid– allegedly 10,000 micrograms 99.9% Pure lysergic acid diethylamide.]

lsd2

[Were CIA brainwashing experiments using LSD carried-out on the President of the United States right before he was killed, an execution that some have linked to the CIA?]

Was Timothy Leary a CIA Agent?

Was JFK the “Manchurian Candidate”? Was the Sixties Revolution Really a Government Plot?

Tinker, Tailor, Stoner, Spy

by Mark Riebling

EXT. THE WHITE HOUSE – SUNSET

Summer-bachelor Jack Kennedy stands on the Harry Truman balcony overlooking the rose-garden fountain, a soothing sight before him: prisms of lighted water shooting into darkness, the white spike of the Washington Monument, auto headlights flickering along Executive Avenue. He begins to feel a deep-seated goodness within, centered between his chest and throat. From the bedroom behind him, through white chiffon curtains in open french doors, float the chords of a Sinatra song — “All I Need is the Girl.” With strange clarity, JFK can suddenly make out every note….

Behind the curtains moves the shadow of a tall woman who is not his wife. She is deeply connected to CIA, and has just dispensed to the President of the United States a dose of LSD. In the next few hours she will be “brainwashing” him, and she will be doing so on the directions of a Harvard psychologist, Dr. Timothy Leary, whose colleagues are all taking CIA money, and who has himself designed a personality test used by CIA….

This, or something very much like this, actually happened. To understand how and why it happened requires cruising back a few years, digging through government documents, reading between the lines of Leary’s autobiography, Flashbacks. It’s a trip through the secret maze of the American pyschedelic underground, a journey that is its own destination, a mystery that must be solved by the reader’s own detective work. What follows are the undisputed facts, the clues:

September 1942: The Office of Strategic Services (OSS), wartime precursor to CIA, begins searching for a drug that will force subjects of interrogation, such as captured Nazi U-boat crews, to reveal secrets. As project director Dr. Stanley Lovell will recall, the idea of a “truth drug” is “considered fantastic by the realists, unethical by the moralists, and downright ludicrous by the physicians.” But according to OSS records, Lovell goes ahead and tests “mescaline, various barbiturates, scopolamine, benzedrine, cannabis indica (marijuana), etc.” The best results are obtained with the marijuana: “A few minutes after administration, the subject gradually becomes relaxed, and experiences a sensation of well-being… thoughts flow with considerable freedom… conversation becomes animated and accelerated. Inhibitions fall away…. [the drug] makes manifest any strong characteristics of the individual…. Whatever the individual is trying to withhold will be forced to the top of his subconscious mind.” To “administer” the pot without a subject’s knowing it, OSS scientists dissolve marijuana leaves in acetone, then heat the result into a clear, odorless, viscous liquid — tetrahydrocannabional acetate — which can be “injected into any type of food, such as mashed potatoes, butter, salad dressing, or in such things as candy.”

May 25, 1943: THC acetate is tested on an unknowing subject, Lower East Side mafioso August “Little Augie” Del Gaizo, who has been helping OSS smuggle agents into Nazi-held Sicily. Little Augie is considered an ideal subject because he has secrets he is “most anxious to conceal, the revelation of which might result in his imprisonment”; in fact, he prides himself on having never informed, and has even “been instrumental in killing some persons who have been informants.” But after smoking two proffered cigarettes, laced with a total of .14 grams THC, Little Augie becomes “obviously ‘high’ and extremely garrulous” as he sits in the apartment of OSS officer George White, a former Treasury agent who had arrested him several times in the past. When White turns the subject to law enforcement, Little Augie “with no further encouragement” divulges the identities of city officials on the take; details of the criminal empire run by Meyer Lansky and Bugsy Siegel; “and other information that subject would not give under ordinary circumstances. There is no question but that administration of the drug was responsible for loosening the subject’s tongue.” Henceforth, OSS refers to the THC acetate simply as “TD,” a cryptonym for “Truth Drug.”

1944: OSS uses “TD” in secret operations. Lovell reports that “Certain disclosures of the greatest value are in the possession of our military intelligence as a result of this treatment, which it is felt would otherwise not be known. Properly employed… it may be a national asset of incalculable importance.” But OSS officials, fearing political backlash if use of the drug is revealed, shut the program down.

April-May 1945: Jack Kennedy, before entering politics, is working as a reporter for the Hearst newspaper chain. While covering the charter conference of the United Nations at San Francisco, he frequently sees an old flame from Choate, Mary Pinchot Meyer, and her husband, Cord Meyer, Jr., who is an assistant to the American delegation. A young Yale graduate and award-winning literary talent, Cord Meyer was badly wounded by a Japanese hand-grenade on Guam and has a glass eye; when he smokes cigarettes, the smoke slowly drifts up and into his open, nerveless, unblinking left eye, curling around the glass orb. The sight so disconcerts JFK that he finds himself rubbing his own left eye in a kind of sympathetic agony.

September 1946: Timothy Leary begins doctoral studies in psychology at Berkeley.

1947: Dr. Werner Stoll, a researcher at Sandoz Laboratories in Basel, Switzerland, publishes the first scientific articles on LSD-25, an extract of rye mold, noting that it accelerates thinking and blunts suspicion in schizophrenics.

1947-48: As a graduate student in psychology, Leary attends the first two national conventions of the American Veterans Committee (AVC), a left-wing veterans group, as a California state delegation leader. At the second AVC convention, in Milwaukee, Leary meets Cord Meyer, who is then spearheading an anti-communist purge of the organization. Meyer lectures Leary about communism, and the importance of liberal resistance to it. Leary will later credit Meyer with “helping me understand my political-cultural role more clearly.”

Late 1950: Cord Meyer joins CIA and begins working in its International Relations Division, of which he is soon put in charge. The express purpose of this division is to covertly finance, infiltrate, and encourage noncommunist liberal-left movements and institutions, such as labor unions, creative-academic societies, and student groups.

April 13, 1953: CIA launches Operation MK/ULTRA, a major drug and mind-control program. Although THC acetate is studied as an interrogation aid, CIA is more concerned about reports of communist brainwashing experiments on American POWs in Korea, and focuses on stronger, hallucinogenic drugs. “Aside from the offensive potential, the development of a comprehensive capability in this field… gives a thorough knowledge of the enemy’s theoretical potential, thus enabling us to defend ourselves against a foe who might not be as restrained in the use of these techniques as we are.” Some CIA employees, including perhaps Meyer, volunteer for experiments. Through a front organization called The Society For Human Ecology, CIA begins sponsoring $25 million in research into the effects of mind-altering drugs — LSD, psilocybin and mescaline — at Harvard University and at several cites in the San Francisco-Oakland area, including Stanford and Berkeley.

1954-59: Leary is director of clinical research and psychology at the Kaiser Foundation Hospital in Oakland. He devises a personality test, “The Leary,” which is used by CIA to test prospective employees. He has also become a close friend to Frank Barron, a graduate school classmate who has ben working for CIA since at least 1953. Barron works at the Berkeley Institute for Personality Assessment and Research, which Leary will later acknowledge is “funded and staffed by OSS-CIA psychologists.”

1960-61: Barron founds the Harvard Pyschedelic Drug Research Center. Leary follows Barron to Harvard and becomes a lecturer in psychology. After Barron administers to him some CIA-supplied psilocybin and LSD, Leary begins tripping regularly. He also studies the effects of psycheledics on others in controlled experiments. He later admits to knowing, at the time, that “some powerful people in Washington have sponsored all this drug research.” In addition to Barron, Leary’s associates and assistants during this period include former OSS chief pyschologist Harry Murray, who had montiored military experiments on Truth-Drug brainwashing and interrogation, and Martin Orne, a researcher receiving funds from CIA. Leary also consults British philosopher Aldous Huxley, author of the psychedelic manifesto, The Doors of Perception (from which Jim Morrision would later take name his band). Huxley, who is at Harvard on a visiting professorship, urges Leary to form a secret order of LSD-Illuminati, to launch and lead a psychedelic conspiracy to brainwash influential people for the purposes human betterment. “That’s how everything of culture and beauty and philosophic freedom has been passed on,” Huxley tells him. “Initiate artists, writers, poets, jazz musicians, elegant courtesans. And they’ll educate the intelligent rich.”

Spring 1962: Mary Meyer, recently divorced from her CIA husband, visits Leary at Harvard. She leans against the door post, hip tilted provocatively, studying him with green-blue eyes. Leary will later recall here as “amused, arrogant, aristocratic.” She tells him she has a “friend who’s a very important man, who wants to try LSD for himself.” At the time, though Leary does not know this, Mary is having an affair with President Kennedy, which will include more than thirty visits to the White House (later confirmed by Presidential Secretary Kenneth O’Donnell). Mary tells Leary that the government is studying ways to “use drugs for warfare, for espionage, for brainwashing.” She asks him to “teach us how to run [LSD] sessions, use drugs to do good.” Leary agrees. He provides her with drug samples and “session” reports, and is in touch with her every few weeks, advising her on how to be a “brainwasher.” She swears him to secrecy.

Late July, 1962: While the First Lady is away at the Kennedy summer home in Hyannisport, Mary calls on JFK at the White House. She records the visit in her diary, and later describes it to her close friend James Truitt of the Washington Post. She and the President of the United States smoke two joints of marijuana, reportedly prompting the leader of the free world to say, “This isn’t at all like cocaine. I’ll get you some of that.” Once he is suitably “loosened up” — Leary has emphasized the need to put subjects in a “benevolent state” before turning them on — Mary dispenses to Jack a dose of LSD. As it starts to “kick in,” he goes out and stands on Harry Truman’s balcony overlooking the rose-garden fountain, a soothing sight before him….

Fall 1962: Leary meets Mary Meyer in a room at Boston’s Ritz Hotel. She alludes to her “hush-hush love affair,” and tells him that “top people in Washington are turning on.” According to Leary’s recounting, she also says: “Do you remember the American Veterans Committee, that liberal veterans group you belonged to after the war? The CIA started that.” She explains to him that “CIA creates the radical journals and student organizations and runs them with deep-cover agents…. dissident organizations in academia are also controlled.” When Leary asks her how she knows all this, she explains: “I knocked you with those facts to get your attention. It’s a standard intelligence trick.” She confides that CIA has not only been running left-wing groups as fronts, but has been sponsoring more psychedelic research than he will ever know. “You are doing exploratory work the CIA tried to do in the 1950s. So they’re more than happy to have you do their research for them. Since drug research is of vital importance to the intelligence agencies of this country, you’ll be allowed to go on with your experiments as long as you keep it quiet,” she advises.

Spring 1963: Leary again meets Mary Meyer at the Ritz. She says that her love affair has been exposed, although no publicity has resulted. “I don’t trust the phones or the mail,” she warns. He is to make no contact with her until further notice.

May-June 1963: Mary warns Leary, who is conducting a psychedelic summer camp in Mexico, that their “sessions” are “in jeopardy” because he is attracting “too much publicity.”

September 1963: Mary drives up to see Leary, now conducting experiments at a large private estate in Milbrook, New York. She gives him, for his experiments, a bottle of “the best LSD in the world,” from the National Institute of Mental Health. She takes countersurveillance precautions, and says: “We had eight intelligent women turning on the most powerful men in Washington. And then we got found out…. I made a mistake in recruitment. A wife snitched on us… I’ve gotten mixed up in some dangerous matters.”

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December 1, 1963: Around this time Mary calls Leary, who had been “expecting a phone call from [her]… ever since the Kennedy assassination.” According to Leary, she says: “They couldn’t control him anymore. He was changing too fast. They’ve covered everything up…. I’m afraid. Be careful.”

October 12, 1964: Mary Meyer is shot to death, execution-style, at 12:45 p.m., on a park towpath by the Georgetown Canal in Washington, D.C. Her body is identified by Ben Bradlee, Cord Meyer’s brother-in-law, editor of the Washington Post. CIA counterintelligence chief James Angleton confiscates and later burns the diary in which Mary has recorded her liaisons with JFK. A black laborer with a wife and five children, 26-year old Raymond Crump, Jr., is arrested on suspicion of murdering Mary in a robbery attempt, but she had not been carrying a purse, and there is no credible eyewitness testimony placing Crump at the site. On July 20, 1965, a jury deliberates only eleven hours before acquitting him. The murder weapon is never found; the crime is never solved.

1965-66: FBI agents openly surveil Leary’s drug experimentation compound at Milbrook. Leary, intimidated, considers relocating to Mexico. For jurisdictional reasons, the Bureau turns the case over to former FBI agent G. Gordon Liddy, now a county prosecutor, who later says: “The word was that at Leary’s lair the panties were dropping as fast as the acid.” Liddy leads a raid by sheriffs in March 1966. Leary is charged with possession of illegal drugs, but the case is dropped on technicalities after the Supreme Court’s Miranda decision in June. This series of events imprints on Leary a deep distrust of the FBI and of “cops” generally.

January-August 1967: Ramparts, a radical magazine, exposes CIA sponsorship of the National Student Association, a Cord Meyer project. Meyer’s best friend, James Angleton, assigns CIA officer Richard Ober to begin a leak investigation into the Ramparts story. Ober’s probe is soon expanded into a spy program on the countercultural and student-protests movements, code named CHAOS.

September 1967: Just as CHAOS is launched, Leary moves from the isolation of upstate New York, where he has been philosophically contemplating the Tibetan Book of the Dead, and becomes a gregarious, media-hounding fixture of the Southern California countercultural scene, telling young people to “Tune in, Turn On, Drop Out.”

[SEE:  Inside The LC: The Strange but Mostly True Story of Laurel Canyon and the Birth of the Hippie Generation]

1968: While other New-Left leaders preach violent overthrow of the U.S. Government and creation of a Marxist dictatorship, Leary urges instead a nonviolent, drug-oriented “hippie capitalism,” an artsy-craftsy, decentralized, libertarian sort of entrepeneurship that will also soon find its expression in the culture of the Grateful Dead. While Leary’s position does constitute a rejection of the corporate world, it also embraces private property and the profit motive. Because of this, the Marxist Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) denounces Leary and his noncommunist followers for “limiting the revolution.” The Progressive Labor Party (PLP), a Maoist “Old Left” group, goes so far as to claim that Leary is a CIA agent. But the PLP is accusing everyone it disgarees with of being CIA.

1969: Leary critics will eventually point with suspicion to his close connections during this time to an international LSD-smuggling cartel, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, which is rumored to be a CIA front. The Brotherhood is controlled by Ronald Stark, whom an Italian High Court will later conclude has been a CIA agent since 1960, and the Brotherhood’s funds are channeled through Castle Bank in the Bahamas, a known CIA “proprietary.” For two years Leary lives at Brotherhood headquarters, located on a ranch in Laguna Beach. During this period, the Brotherhood corners the U.S. market on LSD and begins distributing only one variety of the drug, “Orange Sunshine.” Stark says he plans to distribute the product to CIA-backed guerillas fighting Chinese occupation; he reportedly knows a high-placed Tibetan close to the Dalai Lama, and wants to provide enough LSD to dose all Chinese troops in Tibet. In the U.S., meanwhile, Stark provides enough Orange Sunshine to dose the hippie culture and radical left many times over. This is the “bad acid” on which Charles Manson’s followers murder Sharon Tate, and on which Hell’s Angels stab to death a black man during a concert by the Rolling Stones. The Summer of Love has been supplanted by a Season of Hate. Because of this, many countercultural insiders — including William S. Burroughs, White Panther leader John Sinclair, and Merry Prankster Ken Kesey — will eventually entertain the theory that Stark, Leary, and Orange Sunshine are all part of CIA plot to discredit and neutralize the radical left. According to former radicals Martin Lee and Bruce Shalin, widespread use of Orange Sunshine “contributed significantly to the demise of the New Left, for it heightened the metabolism of the body politic and accelerated all the changes going on… In its hyped-up condition, the New Left burned itself out.”

Fall 1969: According to declassified government documents, CIA now has a CHAOS agent with “particularly good entree into the highest levels of the domestic radical community,” who is providing “extremely personal data.” It is decided to send this agent to infiltrate the overseas headquarters of the Black Panthers, but this will not be accomplished for many months. In the meantime, CIA will debrief him for purely domestic information about his associates, in part because he does not “wish to deal with the FBI.” This description perfectly fits Leary. No one has better “entree” than Leary, who has recently been helicoptered in as the guest of honor at Woodstock. Few have more “personal” data on radical figures than the man who is personally turning them on. The overall pattern of Leary’s career, his continual links to people who are linked to CIA, is certainly suggestive. So is the fact that, like CIA’s “star agent,” his willingness to mix with CIA-types does not extend to the FBI, which Leary has disliked since Liddy’s raid on Milbrook.

1970: In February, Leary is convicted of marijuana possession and jailed at Lompoc, California. This seems clear evidence that he is not, after all, a CIA asset or government informant. Yet CIA has at times employed agents or infomrants who are later prosecuted for activities unrelated to their government work. For instance, Johnny Rosselli, and other Mafiosi hired by CIA to assassinate Fidel Castro in the early 1960s, are eventually taken down by the FBI, though over CIA protest. If then, Leary is working for CIA, this may complicate, but ultimately not preclude, his prosecution for other “crimes.” In any case, Leary is not exactly chained to the wall in a dark cellar. Lompoc is a minimum-security, white-collar “joint,” the plushest in the United States, and Leary is still able to get acid. His movements, moreoover, soon keep him in a position to provide valuable intelligence to the U.S. government. On September 12, he is “liberated” from Lompoc by members of the Weather Underground, an SDS offshoot named after Bob Dylan’s lyric, “You don’t need a weatherman to know which way the wind blows.” The Weathermen have launched a Marxist guerilla struggle in the United States, and Leary pledges his solidarity in a a “POW Statement.” It reads, in part: “Listen Americans! Your government is an instrument of totally lethal evil. Resist actively, sabotage, jam the computer… hijack planes, trash every lethal machine in the land…. To shoot a genocidal robot policeman in the defense of life is a sacred act…. Total war is upon us…. WARNING: I am armed and should be considered dangerous!” This especially provocative and hyperbolic communique has two main effects. It re-establishes Leary’s bona fides in the radical underground, and it turns American opinion farther against the New Left.

October 1970: According to Angleton’s deputy, Scott Miler, CIA is at this time trying quite hard to the answer the question: “What was Eldridge Cleaver doing in Algeria?” As it happens, Leary now flies to Algiers and joins up with Black Panther Party leader Eldridge Cleaver. Leary’s travels, and the operation to spring him from jail, have been financed by Stark and the Brotherhood.

October 21, 1970: A CIA memo records that its prized CHAOS source — Leary? — is now overseas.

November 1970 – May 1971: Cleaver grows suspicious of Leary, searches Leary’s apartment “for documents proving that we [Leary and his wife] were CIA operatives,” and imprisons him in the Panthers’ Algerian compound as “white slaves.” On February 12, 1971, a CIA document reports that “Eldridge Cleaver and his Algiers contingent have apparently become disenchanted with the antics of Tim Leary…. Electing to call their action protective custody, Cleaver and company, on their own authority, have put Tim and Rosemary under house arrest.” Since Leary’s condition is not publicly known, this report can only have come from penetration of Cleaver’s entourage. Unless CIA has recruited black militants — a sociologically unlikely scenario — the information has most probably come from electronic surveillance on the Panther compound, or from secret communications by Leary or his wife.

May 1971: Leary and his wife escape to Switzerland with the assistance, according to Leary, of an “Algerian bureaucrat named Ali,” who “made no bones about his connection to the CIA.” “Are you sure you can trust him?” Leary’s wife asks him. “He’s liberal CIA,” Leary says, “and that’s the best mafia you can deal with in the twentieth century.” The escape operation is financed by the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, though checks drawn on CIA’s Castle Bank.

June 18-19, 1972: G. Gordon Liddy, now working for Republicans’ Campaign to Re-Elect the President (CREEP), oversees a break-in of the Democratic National Committe at Watergate. The burglars are caught and Liddy is arrested. The next day, top CIA officials meet secretly to discuss the burglary, in which Liddy has used some ex-CIA agents working for ex-CIA officer Howard Hunt at the White House. CIA director Richard Helms orders his deputies to carry out a “damage control” strategy, to deflect suspicion away from the Agency and toward the President’s Men. This is exactly what is accomplished by Washington Post reporter Bob Woodward’s key “intelligence community” source in the case, Deep Throat, who begins providing tips to Woodward this very day, a few hours after CIA’s damage control meeting. The coincidence of timing suggests that Throat is someone who is at the CIA conference and who has close connections to the Post. Cord Meyer, now #2 man in CIA’s Operations Directorate, is at the meeting, and is still close with his in-law Bradlee, the Post’s editor. He also fits perfectly the many clues Woodward later drops as to Throat’s identity, including chain smoking, a knowledge of literature (Meyer was an award-winning fiction writer before joining CIA) and a battle-scarred face (Meyer had a glass eye).

1973-78: After two years of “jet-setting” in Switzerland, Leary returns to the U.S. By his own account, this has occured through the machinations of CIA; Leary says they have “kidnapped” him. He is convicted on drug charges, and begins doing hard time at Folsom Prison. This seems clear evidence, again, that suspicions about his ultimate loyalties are merely left-wing paranoia. But after a few months out of public view, Leary comes into the open as a government informant. Under the code-name CHARLIE THRUSH, he turns State’s evidence against the Weather Underground. Freed from prison, he is taken into custody for fear that radical revolutionaries have marked him for execution. His former colleagues in the movement form a group calling itself People Investigating Leary’s Lies (PILL). Abbie Hoffmann declares that “Timothy Leary is a name worse than Benedict Arnold.” Allen Ginsburg says that Leary is “like Zabbath Zvi, false Messiah, accepted by millions of Jews centuries ago.”

1978-93: After his last offical contacts with security agencies, in 1978, Leary distances himself both from the government and the “movement” that no longer really exists. Out in the cold, he becomes a sophist in the true sense, a wise-man for rent or hire. Early in the Reagan years he “debates” G. Gordon Liddy, the Watergate burglar who once busted him at Milbrook, on a nationwide tour. Former sixties radicals disgustedly describe the event as “bogus,” and say it is proof that Leary is “in with the fuzz.” At the very least, Leary seems to the Left a lightweight, a one-man Madison Avenue scam, a functional part of the Establishment he once swore to subvert. He hangs out at Helena’s, the trendy restaurant in which Jack Nicholson has an interest, and he occasionally philosophizes for a fee at Carlos and Charlie’s, a local restaurant that also headlines Joan Rivers. He defends his New Style by saying, quite earnestly: “If Aristotle were alive today, he’d have a talk show.” He also publishes Flashbacks: An Autobiography, recounting obliquely his dealings with Cord and Mary Meyer and his work as a government informant, touching only in passing on CIA’s funding of LSD resarch. In 1992 appears, as himself, in Roadside Prophets, a film starring Adam Horovitz. In 1993, he appears in an ad for the Gap. (Cf. “The Great Gap Conspiracy,” by Hugh Gallagher, in the previous issue of Grand Royal.) He designs computer software and hails the coming of the Information Superhighway. Though lacking family wealth, or any gainful employment since 1962, he has nevertheless managed to become a rich man. He lives in Benedict Canyon, only a doors away from the house where Manson’s followers, and Orange Sunshine, did their worst. From his yard he can survey the whole City of Light, and he likes the symbolism of that.

April 14, 1994: Leary, aged 73, visits Gainesville, Florida, where I live. He has come to present a multi-media lecture demonstration of electronic mind expansion, “How To Operate Your Brain.” Three thousand people sit down to see him. He wears white Adidas, black polyester pants, and a psychedelic vest with a ’93 Lollapalooza Guest Pass stuck on it. In his warm-up remarks, he describes looking out the window of his plane on the way in, and comments that “the clouds in Gainseville have been constructed by George Lucas.” He complains that it’s hard to buy marijuana anymore, and says that pot causes short-term memory loss, but also “long-term memory gain.” He says he will be trying to “brainwash” the audience, “not to resist or fight authority, but to engage it in a dialogue to force progressive change.” The lights go down, and some electronic funk comes on. Leary serves as narrator-guide while colors and words flicker and flash on a screen. He quotes Socrates and Ralph Waldo Emerson. People should think for themselves and question authority. Also, “Divinity resides within.” After the lights come on, Leary opens the gig up for questions — but only after warning us, “You’re not supposed to believe anything I say.” People start queueing up for questions at two microphones, and I’m about fifth in line at one of them. I’m planning to ask him about his rumored connections to CIA. Most of the “questions” before mine are pretty uncool. A lot are from NORML activists: “If you wanna come over to my place afterward…” Then some crazy-eyed man says, “The state of Florida is shaped like a gun, and Gainesveille is the trigger — look at a map. Anyway, I’m a schizophrenic and I think I’m Jesus Christ. So Dr. Leary, am I Jesus Christ?” He is serious. Leary dispenses with him by saying, “Just don’t get yourself crucified.” Finally it’s my turn. I step up to the mike. Leary looks at me, looks at his watch. “Sorry, no more time for questions.” A fist-faced steroidal security guard gets between me and the mike. Leary disappears behind the curtain. As fans mill about afterward, I hear there’s some kind of VIP reception for Leary in a side-room, guarded by more fat-necks in blue blazers. I scam my way in: My girlfriend is a professor at the Univeristy, and she talks to some guy who talks to some guy. The side room is one of those harshly lit holding tanks, like where a record company’s PR girl puts you when she doesn’t know you’re “with the band.” People nibble nervously on peanut-butter cookies until Leary enters. There’s an initial crush forward, but then everyone sort of hestitates, afraid to get too close to “the man,” unsure what to say. He sits down at the far side of the room. What the hell, I go for mine — I sit down right next to him. He inscribes to me a copy of Flashbacks. I notice that his hands are weird in the way old people’s hands are, with these corroding purple spots. He seems tired and distracted, so I try the standard espionage trick: Knock him with some facts to get his attention. “You know, my stepmother used to work for Cord Meyer.” Which is true; she was for some years a secretary at CIA. Leary’s reaction is physical: He jerks, as if jolted by some alternating current for which he has no adapter. His eyes are bright with memory. “Cord Meyer was a pretty intense guy,” he says, smiling. I ask a couple other questions, tacking around. Then I put it to Leary like this. “You say in your book that a lot of the LSD experiments at Harvard and Berkeley were, like, paid for by CIA. So I was wondering — I mean, what were your connections with the Agency?” Suddenly he seems tight and defensive, finds the adapter and plugs it in. “They never gave me a dime,” he says. I look into his eyes, the way you do when you try to tell if someone is lying. I don’t see deception, exactly; only pain. He doesn’t say anything to me after this, so I awkwardly say goodbye and leave. Driving home, in the dark, I feel some journalistic guilt for having bothered this good-hearted sage, whose views on life are mostly right. Maybe he has actually told me the truth. The pain in his eyes was probably injured innocence, the kind I’d feel if I’d done a great life’s work and some punk kid asked me, at the end of it, if I’d been funded all along by the KGB. On the other hand, if he did collaborate with CIA, he’d hardly be at liberty to say so, would he? Might he not also feel just a bit guilty; thus the pain? And if the Agency never gave him any money, how did they get the rights to use the personality test that bears his name? I come to a red light. Flashing in my mind is a subliminal message from Leary’s “brainwashing” session: “Think for yourself — question authority.” And then I remember his warning to us, before the question & answer period: “You’re not supposed to believe anything I say.”

INT. CYBERSPACE – A MACINSTOSH CLASSIC – GAINESVILLE, FLORIDA – DAY

An impossible transition is required here. Questions hang, uanswered, like bats on the ceiling of a cave. Was Timothy Leary CIA, or what? What was Mary Meyer trying to “brainwash” JFK to do, and why did both die such untimely, mysterious deaths? Was Orange Sunshine really part of a government-orchstrated plot? Is Leary’s Online Tip a new way to free the mind, or merely the final phase of his one-man plot to hijack the history of the world?

Damn if I know. The secret world of intelligence and espionage has been called a “wilderness of mirrors,” and rightly. You can spend a lot of time saying, “On the one hand…. On the other hand,” especially if you are on Truth Drug.