Attempted Murder of 14-year-old Schoolgirl In Swat By Pakistani Taliban

 Malala Yousafzai

SWAT: Tehreek e Taliban Pakistan (TTP) have claimed responsibility of an attack on Malala Yousafzai, the National Peace Prize Winner.

 

TTP spokesman, Ehsanullah Ehsan said his group was behind the shooting.

 

“We carried out this attack,” spokesman Ehsanullah Ehsan told AFP, speaking by telephone from an undisclosed location. “Anybody who speaks against us will be attacked in the same way.”

 

“She was pro-West, she was speaking against Taliban and she was calling President Obama her idol,” Ehsan said by telephone from an undisclosed location.

 

“She was young but she was promoting Western culture in Pashtun areas,” he said.

Pakistani hospital workers carry injured Malala Yousafzai, 14, on a stretcher at a hospital following an attack by gunmen in Mingora on October 9, 2012 source

Shooting of teen peace activist triggers revulsion at terror apologists

ANITA JOSHUA

Malala Yousafzai, the 14-year-old peace activist who became the `voice of girls in Swat’ when the Taliban controlled the valley in 2008, was injured in a shooting incident on Tuesday; triggering a nationwide wave of revulsion at terrorists and their apologists.

Malala was returning from school in Swat when unidentified assailants opened fire at the vehicle in which she was travelling. Two other passengers were also injured in the attack. Malala was first taken to a local hospital. Her condition was reported to be stable even as Prime Minister Raja Parvez Ashraf announced in Parliament that a helicopter was being sent to Mingora to bring her to Islamabad for treatment.

Malala had received death threats from the Taliban for speaking out against terrorism and advocating girls education. According to some media reports, the assailants first asked the passengers in the vehicle to identify Malala. When they did not oblige, the assailants opened indiscriminate fire at the vehicle.

Malala shot to prominence in 2009 when she began writing a diary in Urdu under the pseudonym `Gul Makai’ for the BBC about the travails of living under the Taliban regime. She was only 11 then but her heart-rending accounts caught international attention and she was nominated for the International Children’s Peace Prize by Amsterdam-based advocacy group KidsRights in 2011.

As news broke of Malala being shot, condemnation was quick to follow from across the political spectrum with even the religious right wing parties joining in. The Jam’at-ud-Da’wah also condemned the shooting even as cricketer-turned-politician Imran Khan’s Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaaf came in for scathing criticism for being an apologist for terrorism and his advocacy of peace deals with terrorists instead of military action against them.

Anguished by the television footage of the girl being treated in hospital, the general drift of the discourse on all platforms – television and social media – was that the `fog of war’ was not an excuse Pakistan could any longer afford. The nation would have to see terrorism for all its evils without making excuses for it; that there cannot be “good terrorists and bad terrorists’’.

Another Massive Russian Ammo Dump Explosion–This Time On A Train

The site of a similar accident in June.

Residents Evacuated as Urals Ammo Dump Burns

Residents Evacuated As Ammo Train Blows Up

Residents Evacuated As Ammo Train Blows Up

© Photo Russian Interior Ministry in the Orenburg region

16:22 09/10/2012

MOSCOW, October 9 (RIA Novosti)

Residents were evacuated on Tuesday after munitions at a military ammunition disposal site exploded near the Donguz rail station in Russia’s Orenburg region, the Emergencies and Civil Defense Ministry said.

A total of more than 4,000 tons of ammunition exploded, the Investigative Committee’s Chief Military Directorate said.

“That included 1,379 tons of 100-mm shells, 400 tons of aviation bombs, and 2,000 280-mm rockets from Uragan multiple rocket launchers,” committee said in a press release.

“Donguz has been partially evacuated, and road traffic on the Sol-Lipetsk highway has been stopped,” a ministry source said.
The alarm was sounded at 10:57 a.m. Moscow time, after a fire broke out at the depot 25 miles (40 km) from Orenburg, followed by three explosions. There were no reports of casualties so far, the ministry said.

The explosion took place after a fire, the Izvestia daily reported. Smoke billowed from the depot for about 10 minutes so the nearly 300 officers and soldiers had enough time to run to a safe distance and no one was hurt.

“Commander issued an order to leave the premises. We dropped everything and fled,” an eyewitness told the paper.

“Otherwise all the 300 people would have been killed.”

The cause of the fire has yet to be established.

The military base has been cordoned off with over 200 rescuers and army sappers working at the scene. They will look for unexploded munitions for their subsequent disposal.

The incident is the latest in a series of blasts involving munitions disposal sites and firing ranges in Russia in the last few years.

Three servicemen were injured in a blast on a military range in Russia’s Far East Khabarovsk Territory on May 30.

On May 18, another person was injured in an ammunition depot fire in the nearby Primorsk Territory.

Last June, huge explosions shook an ammunition depot in Russia’s Urals republic of Udmurtia, leaving 95 people injured.

Secretary-Dick of NATO Offers To Defend Turkey from Its Actions

NATO Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen briefs the media at the start of a NATO defence ministers meeting at the Alliance headquarters in Brussels October 9, 2012.
(FRANCOIS LENOIR /REUTERS)

 

 

BRUSSELS — Reuters

NATO says it is ready to defend alliance member Turkey amid artillery exchanges along its tense southeastern border with Syria.

Secretary-General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said Tuesday that Ankara can rely on the alliance, which has “all necessary plans in place to protect and defend Turkey if necessary.”

But he appealed to all parties involved to show restraint and avoid an escalation in the crisis.

Turkey and Syria have exchanged mortar and cannon fire across their common border since errant Syrian shells killed five Turkish civilians last week. The border region has been the scene of bloody clashed between Syrian government forces and rebel militants who have used safe havens within Turkey.

Syria says it is not seeking any escalation of violence with Turkey.

Mexican Navy Special Forces Kills Leader of Los Zetas

Full statement of Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano SEMAR on

Monday, October 8, 2012

 

Post-Mortem Photo Heriberto Lazcano 

We present a full statement of the SEMAR:

The Navy INFORMA abatement of two alleged members of ORGANIZED CRIME

Mexico City-The Department of the Navy – Navy of Mexico reports that yesterday, during an attack with grenades and firearms against naval personnel, were killed two suspected criminals. Later, it was revealed that there is strong evidence that one of them belongs to the body of Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano (a) “The Lazca”, main leader of the criminal organization “Los Zetas”.

Yesterday at approximately 13:30 pm, in response to several citizen complaints, it was learned that people armed members of organized crime were in the area of ​​Progreso, Coahuila, proceeding to carry out patrolling the area to verify the information.

Naval personnel in official vehicles to circulate in that vicinity, was attacked with grenades from a moving vehicle, which is why we proceeded to repel aggression, having been wounded by gun fire an element of this institution, with wounds not life-threatening.

During this confrontation, two suspects were killed. Ensuring plus two rifles, a grenade launcher tube, with 12 grenades helpful, with a tube rocket launcher with two rockets, chargers and cartridges for various firearms.

The two criminals killed and secured the material were made available to the relevant local authorities.

Information was obtained, that once were performed for the first forensic evidence, were reached indications that one of the bodies is Heriberto Lazcano Lazcano (a) “The Lazca”, main leader of the criminal organization “Los Zetas” .

The Department of the Navy is in coordination with the authorities of the State of Coahuila and will be aware of the findings of the relevant expert analysis.

Ivanishvili Fined with $90.9 Million for Uncensoring Georgian TV By Providing Free Satellite Dishes

Ivanishvili Fined with USD 90.9 Million

Civil Georgia, Tbilisi

Bidzina Ivanishvili addressing supporters at Georgian Dream’s campaign rally in Kutaisi on June 10. Ivanishvili’s press office photo.

Tbilisi City Court in its two separate rulings on June 11 imposed total of GEL 148.68 million (about USD 90.9 million) fine on leader of Georgian Dream opposition coalition Bidzina Ivanishvili.

The amount of fine constitutes to 2.1% of Georgia’s total budget revenues set for this year and about 1.4% of Ivanishvili’s personal wealth, estimated to be USD 6.4 billion.

The multi-million fine was imposed after the court approved two decisions by the State Audit Service, which has accused Ivanishvili of violating party funding rules.

Ivanishvili’s lawyers condemned the ruling as a concerted effort by the court and the state audit agency and part of the authorities’ efforts to target Ivanishvili. They said they would appeal both rulings, but also added that they had no hopes of any success.

The ruling can be appealed to the higher court within 48 hours and the Court of Appeals should give its verdict in another 48 hours.

The fine has to be paid within seven days after the ruling by the court of first instance.

Allegations of the state audit agency, which is also in charge of monitoring political finances, involve two episodes.

In one case, the state audit agency claimed, that Ivanishvili through his two companies Burji and Elita Burji provided transportation services with 239 vehicles, including minibuses, under “preferential” terms to his Georgian Dream opposition coalition. The state audit agency estimated this service was worth GEL 2,242,994, which it said actually amounted to illegal donation to the Georgian Dream by Ivanishvili. The state audit agency was requesting the court to fine Ivanishvili with five times of this amount. This sum, however, was furtherdoubled to GEL 22.42 million because this type of violation of the law, according to the court’s decision, was committed for multiple times by Ivanishvili.

In another case, the state audit agency claimed, that distribution of satellite dish antennas free of charge by Global Contact Consulting (Global TV) with use of Ivanishvili’s funding also constituted violation of party funding rules. The agency said that the move actually was giving gifts to voters with total worth of GEL 12,622,019.

Global Contact Consulting, which is more known under its brand name Global TV, is a cable network also providing clients installation of satellite dish antennas throughout the country.

According to the company since early March it has installed satellite dishes in up to 25,000 households across the country

Global TV is the only cable operator which carries Channel 9, a television station owned by Ivanishvili’s wife, which is also available on satellite.

66.8% of Global TV shares are owned by Bidzina Ivanishvili’s brother Alexander; 16% of shares are distributed among three other Georgian citizens and 17.2% is owned by a U.S. citizen, according to registration papers available at Public Registry.

Global TV’s marketing director, Zurab Bazlidze, told Civil.ge on June 8, that the company started sale promotional campaign in early March involving installation of satellite dishes free of charge in the provinces, where access to television stations other than nationwide broadcasters is limited. Clients, under the campaign, will not have to pay monthly subscription fees for a year period and will start paying GEL 4 monthly fee after one year since the installation of the satellite dish.

Giorgi Amiranashvili, who represented the state audit agency at the court hearing, told the court on June 8, that Global TV was able to launch this campaign only after Alexander Ivanishvili received a loan from his brother Bidzina Ivanishvili. He also told the court that the state audit agency interviewed over 40 new clients of Global TV and most of them either testified that satellite antennas were installed as “a gift from Ivanishvili” or said that the dish antennas were installed “on behalf of the Georgian Dream.” The state audit agency also said that the scheme under which Global TV was installing satellite antennas was not driven by commercial benefit and was politically-motivated move.

In case of Global TV, Ivanishvili was fined with GEL 126.22 million.

In an interview with Tbilisi-based Maestro TV last week, Ivanishvili said that one of the aims of targeting him by the state audit agency was “to stop distribution of [satellite dish] antennas in the regions.”

“These antennas will make it possible for television stations, reporting objectively, to bring information into the provinces and that would downscale [affect] of lies by Saakashvili’s television stations and that will be disastrous for [the authorities],” Ivanishvili said.

Before this multi-million fine, total financial penalties imposed on Ivanishvili or entities and individuals affiliated with the billionaire for alleged violation of party funding regulations stood at GEL 11.38 million (up to USD 7 million).

Negotiations between Saakashvili’s and Ivanishvili’s people

Negotiations between Saakashvili’s and Ivanishvili’s people

by  

Giga Bokeria (left), representing President Mikheil Saakashvili, runs into Irakli Alasania (right), representing Bidzina Ivanishvili, exiting the elevator Friday. (Georgian Dream photo.)

 

TBILISI, DFWatch — The winner of the aryparliament election, Georgian Dream, will from October 8 send representatives to each state body to start a  ‘peaceful transfer of government’ until a new government is formed.

This was one of the major decisions made at a meeting betweengovernment and the Georgian Dream coalition’s working groups, which was held on Friday.

“A meeting was held in a business, civilized atmosphere. The conversation was about all important issues which applies during the formation of our country’s democracy. We will continue this process to finalize the transfer of government within the constitution fast, peaceful and in a business atmosphere,” Giga Bokeria, Secretary of the Security Council said after the meeting. He is one of a handful of negotiators the government selected for talks with the Georgian Dream coalition.

He remarked that in those regards attitudes and goal of parties are same and he considers this positive.

Bokeria noted that since Monday working on certain issues will start and another meeting will be held.

Davit Usupashvili, leader of Republicans and member of Georgian Dream’s negotiation team explained that representatives of the coalition will get introduced with situation at different state bodies until formation of new government in order to have painless transfer process.

“We will also get engaged in Geneva talks and send representatives in each structures, including law enforcement body,” he said.

Yet he didn’t specify names of those persons.

Irakli Alasania, Leader of the Free Democrats once more confirmed that Bidzina Ivanisvhili will be Prime Minister and he will staff the government.

As for specific bodies and officials, Alasania explains that consultations will start on Monday on this issue.

Davit Bakradze, number one for National Movement party list remarked that Georgian Dream will completely staff a new government including law enforcement bodies.

He says today’s meeting was very important and constitutive start of a process called peaceful transfer of government. Bakradze explains both sides acknowledge own responsibility and are ready to have peaceful and constructive transfer process. As for specific personnel, he says next week will start consultations on this issue.

“Today it became clear clear that parties do not plan to create artificial problems for each other and government transfer will happen within constitution to provide peaceful future for our population,” Bakradze said expressing hope they will manage not to bring violence, but better future.

He also says that current government doesn’t plan to create any problems regarding specific minister candidates. Bakradze remarked that by current constitution president has authority in naming ministers for law enforcement bodies, but he explained current government won’t use this authority.

Arbakai vs. Lashkar–Afghan and Pakistani local forces

Afghan and Pakistani local forces

There has been a tradition, in Afghanistan and Pakistan, of local forces, raised by a local tribal structure in response to a specific need. While the term akarbai has been used interchangeably with lashkar, the two are not identical. While lashkar also may refer to hired militia, the latter is considered less honorable. Arbakai is a tribal based community policing system grounded in volunteer grassroots initiatives. They differ from lashkar that form in response to cheghar, or a need to defend against a common threat, and certainly from hired militias. [1]

Making use of akarbai would be a specific, traditional approach to using clans to enforce peace. It is an open question if this would work with the religious extremism now present. [2] Local leaders said a failed attempt, in 2004, to build a Kabul-Kandahar road could have been mediated by tribal leadership, who were not consulted. In some cases, the tribes took on a responsibility on their own, as the creation, by the Mangal tribe of Khost Province, of an arbakai for election security. The tribes, however, will look to their own interests, and cannot be coerced into an arbitrary national policy.

There is also a challenge in the interaction of warlords funded by outside powers, and the traditional tribal structure. Military figures often broke the local collaborative system. [3]

On the pro-communist side, President Najibullah used local militias against the Taliban between 1989 and 1992. As has been the case in a number of wars, not in Afghanistan alone, they were undisciplined, prone to switch sides, and could be corrupt and brutal.[4]

Again in other wars, there have been more successful experiences, but usually with professional leadership, such as the Firqa irregulars in Iran in the 1970s, or an assortment of groups in South Vietnam, usually led by United States Army Special Forces. More recently, it has worked with Sunni local fighters in al-Anbar Province of Iraq

There has not been much success with stable militia in Afghanistan. One prerequisite appears to be a strong tribal structure, coupled with a homogeneous population, so there are no inter-tribal fights, It was first attempted in eastern Afghanistan, where government has always been weak.

During the Afghanistan War (1978-1992), this was a common way for the Taliban to raise infantry for local combat; which they called lashkar; they are paid only by the local authority if at all. Specialists, who gained skills under the Communists such as tank and aircraft crews, wer emore mercenaries. [5]

Arbakai vs. Lashkar

Arbakai differ from those in militia or hired by private security companies. They have greater support and are embedded within the community. In Pashto the derivation of the word Arbakai ismessenger. The same basic idea has different names in different areas: The Arbakai in different ara with different names, such as , in the Federally Administered Tribal Area it is calledSalwishti or Shalgoon and in Kandahar Province it is known as Paltanai.

However, with reference to the security system, it is used in the broader context of security enforcement. Arbakai has been defined in many ways. According to the International Legal Foudation, Arbakai are the traditional enforcers of the decisions of Pashtun jirga councils. “The men responsible for the enforcement and implementation of the Jirga decisions are known as Arbakai. In ancient Aryan tribes, the Arbakai led groups of warriors in wartime and maintained law and order in peacetime. Today, they take orders from a commander. They are given considerable immunity in their communities and cannot be harmed or disobeyed. Those who flout these rules are subject to the punishments set by the Arbakai organization.” [6]

Arbakai are (usually) unpaid; they are part of the community structure rather than being hired by a person, government, or company. Arkabai are sufficiently part of the pashtunwali honor code to be distinct from ad hoc community armed groups. “In Southeast Afghanistan, people are very clear about the distinction: being an Arbakai member is considered an honour while belonging to a militia is considered shameful. As Kakar states, honour is one of the Pashtunwali principles. The responsibility of any specific Arbakai differs from one tribe to another though they do have common tasks and duties. These are as follows:

  • To implement the Jirga’s decisions;
  • To maintain law and order;
  • To protect and defend borders and boundaries of the tribe or community.

Any of these three general categories may have various subcategories related to what is accepted or recognised as a ‘common good’ or as a ‘threat or challenge for overall security’”[7]

Regional experience

Eastern Afghanistan

In Kunar Province, a system based on the traditions of the Shinwari, Mohmand, and Khogyani tribes was reestablished by the Governor in 2004. It was financed financed by the government through the Jirga and not through direct payment to the Arbakai members when serving as, for example, militia. The money given by the government was not intended to be used as a salary, but was to cover the expenditures of the Arbakai. The system was influenced by that practiced by the neighbouring tribes of Muhmand, Shinwari and Khogyani.[8] This was potentially weakened due to government financing, but channeling it through the jirga seemed to legitimize it.

In Gardez Province, even though arbakai of the area were incorporated into the Afghan National Auxiliary Police, a central government police reserve, they still consider themselves “Ahmadzai arbakai”. The Ahmadzai arbakai are Pashtuns in Gardez. According to a local elder, “Each sub-tribe takes its turn to be arbakai and they serve 10 days at a time… The arbakai only works in the area of its own tribe. The tribe will discipline them if they do anything wrong to the people….They recognise the local people. That is why they are better than the national police or the army.”[4]

Kabul area

Less successful was a program tried in Tagab district of Kapisa province, located north of Kabul. In its formation those who attended were not real representatives of the sub-tribes living in the district. Instead, the “were excombatants related to the jihadist parties and were included because of their political

affiliation.”

It was not established using proper procedure, and indeed was implemented through a top-down approach, against the core principles of the Arbakai. It was based on implicit political goals by some local officials and was not embedded in the social fabric of the area, and thus lacked trust and support. Individuals joined it for financial reasons, not to serve their communities. It was not an impartial system and had no autonomy, and finally there was no history of the use of the Arbakai in the area. The Arbakai system needs to be separated from the political and economic objectives of influential individuals and government authorities. It must be controlled by a representative group that will make collective decisions on the basis of equal and inclusive participation[9]

Refugee camps

An arkabai system was set up to maintain law and order in some Afghan refugee camps, including those the “Haripur area of the North West Frontier Province in Pakistan. It is worth noting that the people who lived in these camps were not only people from the south-east. Indeed, the majority of people living in these camps were from other regions of the country, particularly from the northern and north-eastern regions. ”

After informal measures failed, elders, teachers and religious scholars agreed to establish a committee called the ‘Reformation Committee or Council’ and under the supervision of this committee they established an Arbakai system. There were twenty five Arbakai from twenty five mosques who would attend daily to perform their duties under the committee.” There was no other law enforcement in the camp.[10]

Southern Afghanistan

Britain, in particular, is exploring the use of village defence forces in southern Helmand Province. Speaking to the British parliament on 12 December, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown told the British Parliament said that Britain advocated a shift in strategy that would favour “hard-headed realism” and work “with the grain of Afghan tradition”. “One way forward is to increase our support for community defence initiatives, where local volunteers are recruited to defend homes and families modelled on traditional Afghan arbakai,” he said.

Speaking to the British parliament on 12 December, British Prime Minister Gordon Brown told the British Parliament said that Britain advocated a shift in strategy that would favour “hard-headed realism” and work “with the grain of Afghan tradition”. “One way forward is to increase our support for community defence initiatives, where local volunteers are recruited to defend homes and families modelled on traditional Afghan ‘arbakai’,” he said.

The Helmand police chief Gen Mohammad Hussein Andiwal, in southern Afghanistan, disapproves. “I am speaking for myself, not my government here – but as far as Afghanistan is concerned in three decades of war there is not any example of a militia having done anything for the benefit of Afghanistan…If you use the name of militia or of arbakai, people will be shocked. They had a very bad reputation and just look after the interests of their own tribe. The British have not contacted me on this issue, but I will always tell them to focus on the national police, not militias.”[4]

South Waziristan

In the Pakistani tribal tradition, a lashkar is formed in response to a specific incident. In this case, it is being organized by a tribal leader, known as Maulvi Naziror or Mullah Nazir, after the the collapse of the conciliatory “Waziristan Accord” negotiated by regional governor Ali Muhammad Jan Orakzai in September 2006. Orakzai resigned on January 6, after two separate rocket attacks. The first, in the regional capital of Wana, killed three; the Balochistan Liberation Army claimed responsibility. [11] The second attack hit the office of Maulvi Khanan—a close aide of Maulvi Nazir—in nearby Shakai.

A former Taliban commander believed to have connections to Pakistan’s Inter-Services Intelligence agency (ISI), Nazir has publicly accused Baitullah Mehsud for the killings. “It would be a mistake to see Maulvi Nazir as either pro-Washington or pro-Islamabad. Nazir acts in his own interest, those of his clan and those of his tribe and will ally himself with anyone he perceives may further those interests. His extended family owns property on both side of the Afghan-Pakistani border and he travels freely between the two without interference from the Afghan Taliban. The apparently impending explosion of violence in the Waziristan frontier region will only create further instability that can be exploited by the Taliban and al-Qaeda.”[12]

Role in regional and national security

Akarbai, at least, may need to be seen as a complement to, rather than a substitute for, police and other official security organizations. The presence of a working jirga is essential.

As with the Taliban, there may be a separate role for lashkar, but these will not have the self-discipline and community control of akarbai.

When Tariq, in 2007, asked a chief of police on how arbakai could help, he initially said “we want Arbakai to join us as soon as possible because without Arbakai involvement security will not be established in the province.” He did not, however, have a clear idea how this would work, originally suggesting, but rejecting, having them under the police. He then proposed they include at least one policeman, as a deputy for their leader. It is also unclear how some tribal traditions, such as blood debt, could fit into a system governed by general principles of human rights.

A nationally oriented attempt, in 1992, established temporary peace but did not provide a long-term solution. “…Tribal leaders from Loya Paktia made the decision to establish a buffer between warring parties and attempted to end the conflict. The peacekeeping action was successful, but the tribal leaders’ attempt to solve the conflict failed. This failure was due to various reasons. First, there was little financial support for this mission. Second, some of the tribal leaders or tribesmen were committed to one of the warring parties and sabotaged the process. Third, the tribal leaders failed to take Waak (statements of position) from the leaders of the warring parties, which is a major mistake according to tribal conflict resolution rules and regulations. Finally, there was no UN or international community support to these efforts. This is the conclusion of Mohammad Daud, currently Member of Parliament from the Paktia Province and an Ameer of the Arbakai during that mission. If the Arbakai are tasked with stopping the fighting and allowing the start of peace negotiations, this must be supported by all sides including those at national level and in the local private sector. It must receive political and financial support from organisations such as the OIC and the UN.”[13]

References

  1.  Mohammed Osman Tariq (December 2008), Tribal Security System (Arbakai) in Southeast Afghanistan, Crisis States Research Centre, Occasional Paper no. 7
  2.  Scott Baldauf (June 24, 2004), “Key to governing Afghans: the clans“, Christian Science Monitor
  3.  Ana Pejcinova (2007), Chapter 3: The Afghan Cultural ModelAfghanistan: Creation of a Warlord Democracy
  4. ↑ 4.0 4.1 4.2 Tom Coghlan (December 26, 2007), Can tribes take on the Taleban?
  5.  Ahmed Rashid (2000), Taliban: Militant Islam, Oil and Fundamentalism in Central Asia, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300089023, pp. 99-100
  6.  The Customary Laws of Afghanistan, International Legal Foundation, 2004, p. 10
  7.  Tariq, p. 3
  8.  Tariq, p. 9
  9.  Tariq, pp. 9-10
  10.  Tariq, pp. 8-9
  11.  Saleem Shahid (January 6, 2006), Boy dies in Mach rocket attack
  12.  Andrew McGregor (January 14, 2008), “South Waziri Tribesmen Organize Counterinsurgency Lashkar“, Terrorism Monitor, Jamestown Foundation
  13.  Tarik, pp. 11-12