“On the human rights situation in several of the world”
The situation in the U.S. is far from the ideals proclaimed by Washington. Home unsolved problem – an odious prison at Guantanamo Bay, where still contains 171 prisoner, suspected of having links with terrorists. President Obama legalized indefinite and extrajudicial imprisonment, as well as authorized the resumption of military tribunals.
The current administration continues to use most of the methods of social control and the privacy of Americans , to adopt special services under the pretext of Bush’s “war on terror.” At the same time the White House and U.S. Justice Department harbor from liability CIA operatives and senior officials responsible for the massive and flagrant violations of human rights standards.
Do not stop violations of international humanitarian law in armed conflict and during anti-terrorist operations, indiscriminate and disproportionate use of force .
Exacerbated long-standing systemic problems in American society, including racial discrimination, xenophobia, overcrowding, unreasonable use of the death penalty, including innocent, minors and the mentally ill, the imperfections of the electoral system and corruption .
Deteriorated sharply implementation of basic socio-economic rights, including the collective rights of workers. In the chronic deficit of the federal and local budgets revealed the crisis in the judicial system, including inadequate access to justice .
The extraterritorial application of American law does the greatest harm in terms of US-Russian relations. It leads to the violation of fundamental rights and freedoms of Russian citizens, including arbitrary arrests and abductions from third countries, child abuse, criminal prosecution on the evidence “fake agents” and dubious evidence (the most obvious examples – the case of Viktor Bout, and KV Yaroshenko) .
During the presidency of Barack Obama’s U.S. expanded its international legal obligations in the humanitarian field and continue to participate in only three of the nine core human rights treaties.Americans have not yet ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child (it is also not only joined the Somalis).Washington refuses to cooperate with the Convention’s mechanisms dealing with individual and collective complaints about violations of human rights by States, insisting that the American legal system copes with this problem without outside help.
In January 2012 special prison at the naval base the U.S. in Guantanamo Bay will turn 10 years old. In prison, the prisoner is 171 (at time of entry of Barack Obama in office – 242). Among them, a Russian citizen – who was arrested in 2002 in Pakistan, RK Mingazov.
In July 2010, the first U.S. prisoner repatriated against his will: 35-year-old Algerian, A. Naji was sent home, despite fears that they are waiting for his new torture by the government or the Islamists.
Obama has revised his earlier criticism of the military commissions. It authorized the resumption of their activities subject to the provision of additional guarantees defendants, inter alia, restrictions on the use of hearsay evidence and extracted under torture. With respect to the 48 high-risk guantanamovtsev, against which it is difficult to organize the criminal proceedings due to lack of sufficient evidence of their guilt or lapse of time, the administration decided to continue the practice of indefinite detention, without charge . The same fate seemed to threaten 30 Yemenis, whose administration is ready to be repatriated only when their homeland “security conditions improve.”
In September 2006, Bush actually admitted the existence of secret CIA prisons , proclaiming the transfer of 14 prisoners detained in them to Guantanamo. As it became known later, in 2002-2003.intelligence services have been built about ten of these pre-trial detention, including in Afghanistan, Iraq, Thailand, Morocco, Romania, Lithuania and Poland, where the “legal vacuum” contained about 100 prisoners.
On behalf of five former prisoners of the CIA organization, “American Civil Liberties Union” (ACLU) filed in U.S. federal court lawsuit against the subsidiary, “Boeing” – “Dzheppesen Deytaplen” whose aircraft were delivered to individuals captured secret prisons . However, the Obama Administration has blocked its consideration, citing “state secrets”. At the same time in May this year The U.S. Supreme Court refused to consider plaintiffs’ appeal.
In violation of international legal obligations of the United States under the Convention against Torture Justice decided not to prosecute security officials who have used during the notorious “war on terror”harsh interrogation methods for terrorism suspects . Meanwhile, treatment of prisoners in secret CIA prisons was classified as torture , including the reports of the ICRC and the Commissioner for Human Rights Thomas Hammarberg Council of Europe. As a result of “interrogation” is not one prisoner died (spetsprokuror Dzh.Dyurhem, who in 2009 was asked to investigate the legality of techniques applied by the CIA to knock testimony, recommended to start criminal proceedings only in two cases of violent death).
Did not suffer any penalties and former employees of the U.S. Department of Justice (eg, Dzh.Yu teaches law at the University of Berkeley, became a judge of the court Dzh.Baybi sht.Nevada, S. Bradbury advises on legal issues of one of the major presidential candidates in the upcoming elections the Republicans M . Romney), authorize the use of torture techniques such as prolonged sleep deprivation, confinement in boxes with insects, forced nudity, dousing with cold water and simulated drowning.
Could not get justice in the U.S. of A. Rahim al Nashiri, who had been in U.S. secret prison in Afghanistan, Thailand and Poland. In this regard, in September 2010, a Saudi lawyers filed an application to the Polish prosecutor to investigate the content of their client in a secret prison in this country. For the same reason Yemeni M.al-Assad sent in March of this year complaint against another state that housed a secret CIA prison – Djibouti – the African Commission on Human Rights.
Very revealing and was released in 2011 under the telling name of the report: “Torture away with: the treatment of detainees under the administration of George W. Bush,” “Human Rights Watch” , which in comparison with similar reports greatly expanded evidence base Crimes Bush pores and the persons who, according to NGOs, should be held personally criminally responsible (Bush himself, former Vice President Dick Cheney, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, CIA Director Dzh.Tenet, presidential adviser on national security Condoleezza Rice, Secretary of State Colin Powell, Attorney Dzh.Eshkroft a number of other senior officials, called “the developers of legalizing torture.”)
As the defenders, with the advent of Barack Obama U.S. intelligence agencies did not abandoned the practice of spying on the “internal enemies” . In particular, it is in full swing started back in 2008, the investigation ties pacifist activists and trade union movement with foreign entities, which the administration has made the list of terrorist organizations – “the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia,” the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine and “Hezbollah”. Among the suspects fall NGO staff, teachers, bloggers, religious leaders – all who openly criticizes U.S. policy in Latin America and the Middle East. Just last fall, subpoenas received 23 activist.
In May of this year U.S. Congress extended the adopted after September 11, 2001, “USA Patriot Act.” Law enforcement agencies are still able to monitor those suspected of extremism, even if they are not linked to specific terrorist organizations. In addition, FBI, NSA and other intelligence agencies retained virtually unlimited authority on wiretapping without warrants of telephone conversations and e-lustration and mail individuals and organizations suspected of terrorism . Finally, they can continue to seek in any commercial companies and institutions interested in information, including confidential (financial statements, medical records, information on bank accounts, etc.). According to official data released by the FBI for 2010, this department has quadrupled the number of operations on continuous listening. During the same period by different organizations sent out 24.3 thousand prescriptions to provide sensitive information about Americans and foreigners (total of 14.2 thousand)..
At the beginning of the paragraph with the approval of the U.S. Attorney E. Holder FBI prepared a classified statement to the agents, which allows them in detention in the United States does not explain suspected of having links with Al Qaeda and the Taliban are their legal guarantees.
After a failed attempt to attack the airport g.Detroyt in December 2009, nearly double the list of persons who are not allowed to fly on American aircraft or foreign aircraft flying over U.S. airspace (up to December 2009 there were nearly 3.4 Thousands of names now – about 6 million). As a result, some Americans can not return home from abroad and forced to remain in exile. In June 2010, the ACLU filed a lawsuit against the government on behalf of 10 U.S. citizens caught up in this list. Human rights activists suggest that the FBI uses this practice in order to interrogate persons of interest to security services abroad without a lawyer.
Freedom of speech and press in the United States guaranteed by the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution and is traditionally one of the most protected of liberal values, but it is after the attacks of September 11, 2001 was severely limited.
According to the organization “Reporters without Borders”, in 2009-2010. the degree of freedom of the press United States occupied the 20th place in the world (of 178). In the ranking of other NGOs – “Freedom House” – in 2010 the United States was on the 25th line.
Despite the promise of Barack Obama to raise the level of transparency in the activities of state agencies, the U.S. government declared a real war Dzh.Assanzhu – the founder of the network project “Wikileaks”, on which were placed thousands of files with sensitive information about the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, as well as the secret correspondence of the American Foreign Ministry.
Criminal charges were brought against an ordinary B. Manning, a suspect in the transmission of classified information network resource. Obama has called the measures taken in respect of the ordinary, “adequate.” Under pressure from international human rights defenders have been improved his initial prison conditions. At the same time filed additional charges of 22 counts, including “assisting the enemy”, for which B. Manning could face the death penalty.
Special Rapporteur of the UN Human Rights Council (HRC) on torture H. Mendez twice – April 11 and July 12 this year – Made a criticism of the United States in connection with Washington’s refusal to allow free access to the neglected and B. Manning.
In May of this year federal prosecutor sent a summons to appear before the court reporter of the newspaper “The New York Times” Dzh.Rayzenu. Require the journalist to testify against a former CIA agent Dzh.Sterlinga. According to prosecutors, a former reporter tsereushnik gave secret information that formed the basis of one of the chapters of the book “State of War” (the CIA’s plans to supply Iran with false nuclear technology with the help of a Russian agent).
The U.S. Congress for several years can not pass a law that provides journalists the right to keep secret the sources (except for certain cases where the court finds disclosure necessary).
Increasingly, journalists in the U.S. are losing their jobs because of his “politically incorrect” statements. Thus, in June 2010 under pressure from influential Jewish community was forced to retire legendary H. Thomas, who dared to criticize Israel’s actions in regard to “freedom flotilla.” In July 2010, was fired senior editor of Middle East TV “CNN, CNN” A. Nasr, expressing regret on Twitter over the death of the spiritual leader of Lebanese Shiites S. Fadlan.
November 11 this year OSCE Representative on Freedom of the Media D. Mijatovic made a strong criticism of the U.S. authorities about arrests of journalists covering the street protests in the framework of “grasp of Wall Street.” Law enforcement is described as “trampling the freedom of the media and the public interest.” At the initiative of the EU November 17 this year This question was put to a meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council, on which the American side was forced to report on misconduct by New York police against journalists. The American representative to the Board acknowledged that took place “false” arrests of journalists will be investigated.
According to the project, “Counting the dead in Iraq» (Iraq Body Count), by August of this year Iraq conflict has killed up to 111.6 thousand civilians. These figures confirm the published site “Wikileaks” secret report from the theater of operations (109 thousand from January 2004 to December 2009). But according to the study of authoritative medical journal “The Lancet”, take account of indirect factors – disease, famine, and the general crisis of health care and crime, etc. – just in time since the U.S. invasion in March 2003 to October 2006 was in excess of normal mortality rate in this country have killed more than 650 thousand Iraqis (soldiers and civilians).
In April 2010, “Wikileaks” has published a so-called “Iraq dossier”, which reveals previously unknown facts deaths of civilians in Iraq in 2004-2009. Among them – the 39-minute video of a helicopter air strike on Baghdad July 12, 2007, which killed two reporters the agency “Reuters” and the building was destroyed, where there were women and children. The documents, which the U.S. military knew about the violations and often turned a blind eye to them. UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Pillay urged U.S. authorities to investigate these cases and bring to justice those responsible.
The total number of casualties among Afghan civilians since the beginning of the operation “Enduring Freedom” in this country in 2001 is about 11,5-14,2 thousand (34.5 thousand, given the indirect factors of mortality). With approximately 5,7-9 thousand civilians have been killed by an international coalition led by the United States (often as a result of air strikes and use of drones).
July 14 this year UN Secretary General’s Special Representative for Afghanistan, S. de Mistura said in the previous 6 months the number of casualties among the Afghan population has grown by 15% compared with 2010 and amounted to nearly 1.5 million people (of whom 14% died due to the fault international coalition forces and pro-government forces). In May alone, killed at least 368 civilians.
Methods of violence, intimidation and terrorizing the population for a long time been widely used staff recruited by the Americans in large numbers (more than 110 thousand people.) For work in Iraq, theseprivate security companies as “Blackwater”, “Daynakorp”, etc. The most famous was the “massacre Nisur Square ‘in Baghdad September 16, 2007, when members of “Blackwater” (from February 2009 renamed “Xe Services”), shot dead 17 unarmed Iraqis. In December 2008, five members were charged with the shooting, but a year later, a federal court in Washington dismissed them, citing the immunity guards working under a state contract. “Zee Services” remains one of the three largest security contractors in other countries the State Department, including Afghanistan.
UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination in its concluding observations on the fourth, fifth and sixth periodic reports of the United States expressed concern about the increase in racial profiling by U.S. law enforcement agencies . The Committee, in particular, expressed concern about the concentration of racial, ethnic and national minorities, mostly blacks and Hispanics, in poor areas with poor housing, limited employment opportunities, inadequate access to health and social services and crime situation.
After the attacks of September 11, 2001 in the U.S. are strong manifestations of Islamophobia. For example, a sharp rejection of the townspeople are the plans for the construction of three mosques in different parts of New York (Manhattan, Brooklyn and Staten Island). In g.Marfrisboro (Tennessee) unknown burned construction equipment at the site allocated for a new building of the Islamic Cultural Center and installed on-site burning of a sign that says “You are not welcome here.”
According to figures announced at the hearing before the Senate Judiciary Committee in March this year, followers of Islam constitute less than 1% of the U.S. population, but committed against them, 14% of all cases of religious discrimination. Overall, since the terrorist attacks in 2001 the U.S. Justice Department has investigated 800 cases of violence, vandalism and arson against Muslims, Arabs and immigrants from South Asia.
Under the pretext of fighting terrorism the FBI developed and is actively implementing a surveillance program for Arab and Muslim communities . Special services offered illegals to legalize their status in exchange for spying on “suspicious elements” in their religious communities and threatened to expel them from the country in case of non-cooperation.
In general, according to “Amnesty International”, more than 32 million Americans, at least once in his life were racial discrimination by law enforcement agencies . And white Americans also are alarmed at the increasing incidence of “black racism” . There has been a rise in xenophobic groups , whose number, according to human rights organizations in 2008 totaled 926, and the extremist movements of African Americans who oppose the Anglo-Saxons and Jews.
May 30 this year Florida shot the famous black poet, one of the leaders of the Afro-American Culture, 47, Willie Bell, has received wide public recognition for protest rap ballad dedicated to the fight against racial discrimination in the United States.
According to “Human Rights Watch,” in the United States is currently home to about 38 million foreigners and stateless persons, of which about 11 million are illegal immigrants .
According to a 2009 joint report, “National Center for immigration law,” and the separation of the ACLU Immigrants in California are contained in conditions similar to or worse than those in which convicts serve their sentences. Since 2003, immigration centers in the USA killed 100 people.
From September 2009 to September 2010 was deported a record number of illegal immigrants – 392 thousand (in 2011 set a new goal – 404 thousand). 2010 marked another record, and – more than 250 immigrants died trying to cross the US-Mexican border.
In July 2010, the ACLU, along with the “Human Rights Watch” issued a report that individuals with mental illnesses, including U.S. citizens, are often mistaken deportation .
U.S. continues to be the country with the largest “prison population” (according to the U.S. Department of Justice, in 2009 it amounted to 2.3 million people) and the highest level of prisoners per capita in the world (743 per 100 thousand population). Behind bars – each 132-second U.S. citizen. At the same time, more than 140 thousand are serving life sentences.
The main reason for this situation with overcrowding experts as observed during the past 40 years, a steady and widespread tightening of criminal law . In the 60’s. the emphasis gradually shifted to the “re-education” in the direction of maximum security offenders.
About 20 thousand people in solitary confinement on an ongoing basis, which often leads to mental illness. In July of this year another hunger strike in protest against the inhumane conditions of confinement in punishment cells inmates staged a California maximum security prison “Peliken Bay.”
Of particular concern international NGOs in connection with the hit position in the U.S. juvenile offenders . Currently, about 90 thousand minors are serving various sentences, of which nearly
seven thousand were sentenced to life imprisonment (1.7 thousand – without the right to pardon).
Huge criticism from human rights advocates is the position of women in prison (206 thousand in 2008). Twenty-three states and the Federal Bureau of Prisons allowed to shackle women in handcuffs during childbirth.
In June this year Online Global Risech article by a member of the World Workers Party USA activist, “International Center for Action” Sara Flounders of the facts, confirming that the military’s leading U.S. corporations in pursuit of super profit are increasingly using prison labor in violation of their rights by paying meager salaries.
“The American Civil Liberties Union,” has prepared a report, which states that over the past 20 years the number of private prisons in the United States has increased many times. According to official statistics, in 2010, dozens of private prisons contained 148 thousand of the estimated 2.3 million man “of the prison population” of America. This is – 6% of all prisoners in the states, 16% convicted on federal laws, and half the detainees in the country of illegal immigrants. Human rights activists believe unsubstantiated references to half-empty coffers of state and huge federal budget deficits as a reason for the privatization of one of the main functions of the state – isolation of offenders from society. The report explains the privatization of correctional facilities that are widely distributed in the U.S. laws to long prison terms for minor offenses. The benefits of this are large corporations that host of secondary production in the prisons, to use a very cheap labor. In a study of the ACLU has specific facts showing that the situation in private prisons (incidence, mortality and violence against the prisoners, their conditions of detention ) are no better and often worse, the existing system of state prisons.
Although in March Illinois became the 16th U.S. state to abolish capital punishment , in fact it continues to be used in 12 of them. After 10 years of steady decline in the number of sentences (from 98 in 1999 to 37 in 2008) when the number of executions Barack Obama has jumped to 52 in 2009 and 46 – in 2010 for the first 7 months of this year execution has already been given 31 death sentences (the first place by this index holds steady Texas – 24 in 2009 and 17 in 2010). The U.S. government continues to execute minors (22 cases since 1976) and the mentally retarded (at least three of the last five years). The total number of inmates on death row in the U.S. is more than 3.2 million people (including foreigners, including two Russians).
“Achilles heel” of the American Themis in the context of capital punishment are the miscarriage of justice . Over the past 30 years after the event had been acquitted of more than 130 convicted. Enforcement in September 22 years after the death sentence of Troy Davis Blacks for whom intervened many defenders in the world, has once again demonstrated the seriousness of the death penalty in the United States.
July 8 this year UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Pillay expressed deep regret at the death of U.S. citizen of Mexico, GL Garcia. Back in 2004 the International Court decision was rendered, ordering Washington to review the cases of 50 Mexicans, including Mr. L. Garcia, sentenced to death on the grounds that they were not provided with consular assistance. Pillay said that executing GL Garcia, the United States violated international law .
Concerns about human rights is blocking access to the elections and elective independent candidates , as well as the practice of appointing senators, governors, in the case of parole office. Noteworthy in this regard, the case of the former governor of Illinois R. Blagojevich, who, in fact, tried to sell the seat of Senator from this State, vacated after the election of Barack Obama, U.S. president.
U.S. still criticized for failure to comply with international labor standards. In the U.S., one of the weakest in the West system of protection of workers rights to organize and bargain collectively , and the last 10 years the country has not ratified any ILO convention. There is no effective system of arbitration in the event of failure of employers to compromise. In March of this year State of Wisconsin passed a law further restricts the rights of workers to collective bargaining. Similar bills are being prepared in the states of Colorado, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma and Tennessee.
Acute problem in the U.S. remains the mass shootings of innocent civilians mentally unhealthy individuals. Among the latest shocking example – Events 8 January this year in Arizona, where, during the meeting a member of the U.S. House of Representatives of the Democratic Party voters G. Giffords arranged as a result of the mentally ill 22-year Dzh.Lofnerom fire killed six people (including a judge, a pastor, a 9-year-old girl) and wounded 14, including legislator itself.
In accordance with the second amendment to the Constitution of the United States the right to gun ownership can not be confined by the authorities. At the moment, his wearing of self-defense permitted by law in 49 states (the exception is Illinois). In the 26 states it does not require any special license.
Attempts to tighten the legislation in this area has consistently run into opposition defenders of the second amendment, including the influential National Rifle Association, which unites four million people.
According to a report this year, the Ministry of Health and Social Security in the U.S. in 2009 (later data not yet available) in social welfare agencies received about 3.3 million applications for suspected cases of violence against more than 6 million children . The results of checks collected strong evidence of ill-treatment from 763 thousand victims (one in a hundred Americans minors). Of these, 1770 persons (2.4 per 100 thousand) were killed, while 75% of cases – from the hand or by an oversight of their parents. The greatest number of victims (80%) among children younger than 4 years. The vast majority of incidents related to the fact that the children were left unattended (78%). In second place – physical abuse (17.7%), the second – sex (almost 10%), the fourth – the psychological pressure (7.6%).
As a result of violations of the law about 211 thousand children were separated from their parents or guardians, be placed in orphanages and foster homes. More than 700 thousand other needed public assistance, including medical care, legal rights in court and preventative setting their mothers and fathers on the account in the bodies of social protection.
The influential American Bar Association (ABA) in the special report in 2011 concluded that, due to cost reductions at the institutions of the judiciary United States (on average by 10-15% over the past three years) has risen sharply burden on judges and decreased quality of justice .
The crisis in the U.S. economy has led to much litigation. The courts were literally inundated with claims. In the 31 states have cut or frozen wages of court officials, 26 – discontinued set judges in the existing vacancies in the 24 – increased taxes on the participants in the charges in the 14 – reduced time of the courts.
Only in Florida because of the delays of justice in housing disputes damage claims made about the participants $ 10 billion total loss due to prolonged in the largest city in the United States Court of Los Angeles (5,400 employees and 600 meeting rooms) proceedings for Commercial Disputes above 15 billion, while losses amounted to some lawyers $ 13 billion
Judiciary are beginning to show open discontent. For example, in 2010, 330 employees of New Yorkskogo appellate court demanded the state government to improve salaries (wages they did not increase over 11 years). At the same time they complained about the congestion, because each judge has an average of 3,500 cases.
Among the major issues of concern in a rights-based humanitarian sphere in bilateral relations with the United States is a party to the application of U.S. law to U.S. citizens of Russia in the extraterritorial basis. First of all, we are talking about the arrests of Russian citizens in third countries at the request of U.S. law enforcement agents with the direct involvement of U.S. intelligence agencies and departments.
VA Bout was arrested in March 2008 in Thailand, the local police in conjunction with agents of the American agency for the fight against drug trafficking (DEA) and then extradited to the United States. In the U.S., he is accused of conspiring to kill American citizens and military personnel, purchase and sale of MANPADS material assistance a foreign terrorist organization, money laundering, fraudulent money transfers, as well as the Inter-abuse sanctions imposed against him in 2004, the Russian Foreign Ministry demanded from Bangkok to provide official documents on which a Russian citizen was transferred to Washington. In Bangkok on August 10 this year there were several court hearings on the legality of the extradition Russians in the U.S., including the procedural aspects of his removal from the local prison and the transfer of U.S. special agent. November 2nd this year the jury unanimously found in the United States of Viktor Bout guilty on all counts, sentencing is scheduled for February 8, 2012
KV Yaroshenko was arrested in May 2010 in Liberia, with the participation of members of the American agency for the fight against drug trafficking (DEA). May 31, 2010, without any court decision was in fact forcibly removed to the U.S. territory. The Russian diplomatic mission was not informed about the arrest of our citizens. KV Yaroshenko was subjected to psychological and physical effects. In the U.S., he was charged with conspiracy to supply cocaine to the United States and sentenced September 7 this year to 20 years imprisonment. The evidence base was built entirely on Interception of telephone calls, rather than real action.
At the request of U.S. Department of Justice in Germany in November 2010 arrested a Russian citizen SM Satarin (charged with crimes related to drugs, was taken to the U.S. from Germany, 14 April) and in Switzerland in March – Vladimir Zdorovenin .
Directed against Russian citizens and provocative political games, which began in the U.S. around the business lawyer Fund “Hermitedzh” SL Magnitsky, who died in a Moscow prison in 2009 with the participation of a number of U.S. legislators, a list of Russian officials, the alleged relationship to his death (“Magnitsky list”), and the U.S. Congress introduced a bill providing for the introduction of these persons against visa and financial sanctions, which contradicts the principle of presumption of innocence. In July of this year The State Department announced the decision to restrict entry into the U.S. a number of unnamed employees of the Russian law enforcement officials, citing their involvement in the case of Magnitsky.
In the U.S., two of them Russian citizens facing the death penalty. G. Michel was sentenced by a court in California in 2007 for complicity in mass murder. For many years he found in solitary confinement with no windows, it is prohibited walks and socializing with other inmates. N.E.Leschenko-Wilson is accused of murdering his ex-wife of the American husband and her son.
Extremely acute problem of violence against adopted children from Russia with an American family.
In the U.S. continues lawsuit against M. Grismora, accused of raping adopted Russians Ksenia Antonova . Protection of resorting to various tricks, including the use of forged documents, to shield the accused. In this sotssluzhba Cherokee County (Ga.) tightens solution to the provision of a U.S. citizen girl, closing her eyes to the fact that it unreasonably and contrary to accepted procedures in the United States has repeatedly placed in a psychiatric institution.
November 18 Court g.York (Pennsylvania) made unreasonably lenient sentence spouses Kreyveram charged with the death in August 2009, receiving a boy from Russia Wani Skorobogatova ( on a body of seven children found 80 lesions). Despite the fact that the prosecution demanded the death penalty, believing that V. Skorobogatov death caused by foster parents, Kreyvery were released from the courtroom after being arrested and a half years.
In August of this year in Alaska’s adoptive mother of Russian baby Daniel Bukharova Jessica Bigley, publicly mock him by a television camera, was found guilty of “minor offense.” Sentenced to imprisonment for a period of 180 days probation and a fine of $ 2,500 suspended sentence (probation) for three years.
Dmitry Zharkov , left for treatment in the United States in 2008 and lives in the family Ekman in South Carolina. Contrary to the promises they have not started the procedure of adoption, and the American boy visa expired. In the case of Julia Oschenko , despite the agreement took place, the procedure of its adoption, an American citizen Robert Silanksasom also formally completed. The child was taken to the U.S. in 2004 for the treatment and is still there in violation of Russian and U.S. laws.
The least advantaged in terms of human rights in the EU are the questions of “aliens” in the Baltic countries, Roma, migrants and refugees, the situation of racism and xenophobia .
Particularly clearly the problems raised during the well-known human rights NGOs organized by the “Human Rights Watch,” “The International Federation of Human Rights” and “Amnesty International” in the margins of the 18th session of the HRC September 15 briefing on the issue of racial and religious intolerance in Europe.
Human rights activists have expressed serious concern over the prevailing situation in recent years with the national and religious minorities in the EU. Criticism is, above all, the situation of Muslim minorities, and persons of African descent and Roma. Highlight issues such as the ban on the wearing of traditional Muslim women’s clothing items (hijab nidzhab, veil, etc.), creation of obstacles to worship, horrific conditions of illegal migrants, forced evictions of Roma, etc. The situation was described as tselenapravlennaya discrimination based on race and religion. The main conclusion – the overall growth of xenophobia and intolerance in the EU, promotion of far-right rhetoric. It was noted that after the infamous terrorist attacks in Norway, this trend only intensified. Emphasized that the European governments do not try to fight it, but, rather, vice versa, using the trend in domestic purposes. It was mostly about Germany, Spain, Italy, the Netherlands. But the most critical of France, was accused of non-compliance and unwillingness to comply with the relevant European legislation. Switzerland has been criticized for a ban on building mosques in the Canton of Sankt Gallen.
With the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty (1 December 2009) for the implementation of the mandatory EU bodies and member countries to become EU Charter of Fundamental Rights. However, it applies only in cases of implementation by member countries of EU legislation, but not when they accept and are implementing their own national laws, which are directly with the EU law is not connected.
After the entry into force of the Charter to work on rights-based monitoring of the situation in the EU was to connect the European Parliament (EP). At its plenary session in Strasbourg on December 15, 2010 adopted a resolution “Situation of Fundamental Rights in the EU (2009) – effective implementation of the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty.” It states that the human rights situation in the EU is far from prosperous. Of particular concern have caused problems in areas such as freedom of movement, protection of personal data and privacy, the rights of refugees and migrants, human trafficking, protect victims, prisoners’ rights, child protection, including from abuse, sexual exploitation, pornography, the negative impact of the Internet, media freedom, the fight against racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism, discrimination, including based on ethnicity, lack of social integration policies of Roma (Gypsies) . For violations of fundamental rights assigned “penalties for the use of language that differs from the official language of the Member State.”
Criticism of the European Parliament to the EU is a half-hearted and unaddressed: marked only the problem without the indication for which countries they are typical, there are no specific examples of violations of human rights. The resolution is given only one episode, which deals with non-European Commission (EC) and EU Council recommendations EP in 2007 on the use of CIA territories of EU countries for the transportation and illegal detention of prisoners.
In general, the competence of the EU in regulating human rights is rather limited, because protection and promotion of human rights remain the prerogative of the member countries. Compatibility of national legislation with the EU Charter of Fundamental Rights and other basic instruments EC monitors the European Commission . In recent years, has twice threatened to EU action taken in connection with violations of the Charter, until the proceedings before the European Court. The first time it was connected with the deportation of Roma from France (late summer – early autumn 2010), the second – in connection with the adoption of the Hungarian media law abridging the freedom of speech (December 2010 . .) In both cases, countries have chosen not to bring case before the European Court and agreed to amend its legislation in accordance with the instructions of the EC. Despite the successful resolution of these situations, the EU is not fully resolved the problem and continue to be discussed at various levels.
The reports of the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights (AOHR), which since 2007 carries out the basic rights-based monitoring of the situation in the EU, it is recognized that the existing mechanism of the EU anti-discrimination legislation is not sufficiently effective, which is evident from the increase of racism and xenophobia. It is noted that the existing EU legal tools and their application in practice do not provide adequate returns in the fight against discrimination. Everywhere there is an increase in the number of reported crimes motivated by racism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism, although the statistical basis of accounting is poor (eg, data on crimes motivated by anti-Semitism going at an acceptable level only in 6 EU countries). Also observed a weak awareness of citizens about their rights and the existence of organizations that support victims of such discrimination.
Regular AOHR among EU citizens, opinion polls show that about 75% of respondents did not know their rights and have no idea where to go in case of violation, and the representatives of migrant and minority knowledge about the EU anti-discrimination law are virtually absent.
According to the AOHR, gypsies , who are the largest ethnic minority in the EU, more than any other population groups suffer from discrimination, poverty, unemployment, inadequate housing, poor education and health. Life expectancy of Roma in the EU countries on average 11-15 years younger than the indigenous population.
Practiced deportation of Roma in Bulgaria and Romania. According to the European Roma Rights Center, in 2009, was sent from France about 10 thousand Roma in Germany – 100 people. In 2010 in Denmark – 23 people., Sweden 50, 100 from Italy, from France 8 thousand
In some EU countries (the Czech Republic, Greece, Slovakia) is preserved the practice of segregation of Roma children in schools , concentrating them in special classes for mentally retarded.
A year after “Gypsy scandal” In July 2010, Paris began to eliminate illegal Roma settlements and their inhabitants return to their homeland (and by the French budget), which caused discontent not only among human rights activists, but also in Brussels. French Deputy. Chairman of the Commission for Justice, Fundamental Rights and Citizenship V. Reding said that the EC has taken steps to harmonize national laws of 27 EU countries in line with the directive of 2004 on the right of free movement and residence of EU citizens and their families in the territory of member countries , noting that 16 countries have already successfully completed the instructions the European Commission. However, at the end of August this year 11 countries (Austria, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Germany, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and the UK) have not yet made the necessary changes to their laws, and the case against them can be transferred to the European Court. This applies to the 75 provisions of national law of the EU concerning the right of entry and residence for family members, residence permits for third country nationals, providing safeguards to protect against expulsion .
In 2010, AOHR conducted a survey of nearly 900 asylum seekers, during which it became clear that many of them can not get an explanation for its order granting the mother tongue. In France and Greece, these documents are issued only in 5 languages, while the candidates belong to more than 100 nationalities.
Notable human rights violations were observed in the field of asylum and immigration policy during the influx of refugees from North Africa to the EU in the spring of this year by May in Italy, France and Malta arrived around 25 thousand people. from Tunisia and Libya, from 11-12 thousand. In refugee camps in Malta o.Lampeduza and no access to adequate medical and legal assistance, and sanitary conditions left much to be desired.
According to the Dublin EU regulations governing the procedure for considering applications for asylum, an applicant must wait for a decision on his case in the country of entry into the EU. This practice led to violations of the rights of this category of persons.
In this context, in January of this year The European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) decided the case “M.M.S. v. Belgium and Greece, “which revealed a violation of human rights in the procedure of consideration of documents of applicants for refugee status.
Attitude to asylum seekers has been likened to the ECHR cruel and inhuman treatment , as persons awaiting decision on their claims, were without means of livelihood, shelter, medical and legal assistance. Currently, this practice moratorium. However, as in Greece and Italy is still a significant number of persons awaiting review of their applications, and their conditions of detention in the camps were not improved, their rights in these countries continue to be violated.
According to the AOHR, concern the situation of refugee children , unaccompanied, especially the problem of inadequate medical care, as well as placing them in shelters for refugees with adults.
In EU countries, racism is a serious problem in areas such as employment, health, education and housing. According to AOHR ” crimes motivated by racial hatred perpetrated on a daily basis. ” However, his point of view, the analysis of this phenomenon and its control on a European level are hampered due to lack of mechanism to collect comparable statistics. At the same time efforts to establish such a mechanism, although there have been, but were insufficient.
Signals of ethnic discrimination in employment usually came from Belgium, France, Germany, Netherlands, Lithuania and Romania. According to the AOHR, at work
in 2009, more than any discrimination were: North Africans in Italy (30%), Roma in Greece (29%), Roma in the Czech Republic (27%), Africans in Malta (27%), Africans in Ireland (26%), Gypsies in Hungary (25%), Brazilians in Portugal (24%), Turks in Denmark (22%), Roma in Poland (22%).
According to the AOHR, in 2010 the UK unemployment among ethnic minorities was 2 times higher than among the English. Stated a marked inequality between migrants / minorities and the majority population . This is common for migrants in Italy and the ethnic Russian in Estonia.
According to the report AOHR in 2009, when public opinion polls revealed that the police stop minorities on the streets more often than members of the general population. On average, the police stop 33% of North Africans, 30% gypsy, 27% blacks, 22% of the representatives of Central and Eastern Europe and the former Yugoslavia, 21% of Turks.
Even before the terrorist attacks in the Norwegian concern AOHR evoked increase in Internet crimes of hate . However, the additional protocol to the Council of Europe Convention on Cybercrime Information (came into force in 2006), which contains the requirement for Member States to the Council of Europe to criminalize the dissemination of information through computer networks, calling for racism and xenophobia, ratified only 11 EU countries – Germany, France, Denmark, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia and Finland.
In 2010, Germany and Kosovo signed an agreement on the gradual repatriation of Kosovar refugees, including about 10 thousand Roma. In 2010, 116 children have returned to Kosovo, but 75% of them experienced serious difficulties in learning in schools, because, having lived 15 years in Germany, poorly or not owned by the local languages.
This contradicts one of the fundamental principles laid down in Art. 3 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child, which states that “in all actions concerning children, priority is given to the best interests of the child.”
According to the European Association of preventing injuries and promoting safety in the EU more than 19% of children subjected to physical violence in the family . Noticeable rise in the trial of cases involving sexual violence against children , including by representatives of the Catholic Church and senior officials (for example, in Austria, the Netherlands, Portugal, Belgium). In this case all 10 EU countries (Austria, Denmark, Greece, Spain, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Romania, Finland, France) have ratified the Council of Europe to protect children from exploitation and abuse of a sexual nature.
“Non-citizens” in Latvia are still deprived of the opportunity to participate in elections to the European Parliament. And this despite the fact that MEPs from Latvia’s quota (as well as other countries – EU Member States) is calculated from the total population in the country, ie consider living there and “aliens.”
In 2008, the EP were sent two petitions on violation of the rights of “aliens” in the elections in the EP: in Latvia (collected over 16 thousand signatures) and Estonia (more than three thousand signatures).European Parliament hearings on the results of Latvia gave recommendations in favor of the claimants. However, no changes in the procedure of the elections have been made.
The deprivation of “noncitizens” in Latvia the right to vote in EP was recorded in the report of the ODIHR on elections to the European Parliament in 2009 Despite the fact that is believed to ODIHR, in respect of intra-election commitments to the OSCE require granting voting rights only to citizens of countries participants, the situation with elections to a supranational body is fundamentally different. Evidence of this are the provision of EU member states the opportunity to vote in its territory to nationals of other EU countries and an example of the UK, providing citizens the right of the Commonwealth, ie, States, generally outside the EU. According to the ODIHR, in such a question goes beyond the responsibility of individual state and needs to be addressed at EU level. EU should develop minimum standards of voting rights that would implement the “basic principle of the EU – the principle of equality.”
According to several international and local human rights organizations, the situation of human rights in Bulgaria remains unsatisfactory. This is stated in the report of the Council of the UN Human Rights in Bulgaria on November 4, 2010, contains 113 recommendations to the authorities of the country, aimed at improving the situation in this area. Is drawn in particular to the disproportionate use of force by law enforcement, violation of minority rights, violence against under the tutelage of the state and living in state institutions specialized children and persons with mental disorders, rampant racism and xenophobia in society, the violation of freedom of speech provision pressure on the media.
Similar estimates are expressed by the Bulgarian Helsinki Committee. There is an increased number issued in 2010 by the European Court of Human Rights decisions indictments against Bulgaria (only 71), of which the vast majority (61) apply to non-compliance with the state chief of the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of Citizens . Despite repeated reminders to bring national legislation into line with international standards in respect of the greater responsibility for the use of force by law enforcement agencies and the use of firearms, this has not yet been done. Still recorded a significant number of incidents involving law enforcement officers .
Britain’s coalition government wants to preserve its reputation of an uncompromising fighter for human rights throughout the world. However, in recent years London has repeatedly had to make excuses for the sins of the British authorities in this field.
1. In connection with the reaction to the riots in August this year, the suppression of their law enforcement agencies and automatic punching sentences rioters judiciary human rights activists have put forward to the authorities in charge of interference with the principle of separation of powers , as well as the politicization of criminal justice . The reasons for the riots began, including many cases of deaths of members of ethnic minorities at the hands of the police, racial profiling, lack of confidence in the institutions of power in society and the displeasure imperfection of the judicial and law enforcement systems in general.
After the August events, the British courts began to punch convicted rioters. By September, the number of inmates exceeds local standards for their content. According to human rights activists, detention conditions in prisons are the worst in recent years, is thriving insanitary conditions. Added more fuel to the fire on the quality of prison Vendsvorf, which lists violations of prisoners’ rights (no access to basic hygiene, etc.). Every month in protest at conditions up to 32 cases of prisoners trying to commit suicide, is fixed and up to 11 deaths per month, 4 of them, as a rule – suicide.
2. In September of this year A special commission under the leadership of the Civil W. Geigy completed a three-year investigation into the death of Iraqi citizen B. Moses and grievous bodily harm has nine detainees by British troops in Basra to the Iraqis in 2003, the Commission recognized that the soldiers of the First Battalion Queen’s Lancashire Regiment, used illegal and unacceptable practices interrogation of prisoners of war , in fact – torture . Beating caused the death of one of the 10 detainees. The Ministry of Defence officially held responsible for nedovedenie to military interrogation rules.
Chairman of the Commission has identified four soldiers bearing personal responsibility for the death of AB Moses. Among them, Corporal D. Payne (the only Briton who suffers criminally responsible for the crime – in 2006, sentenced to one year in prison, later – acquitted) and Lt. Col. Dzh.Mendonka who, as commander of the unit could not have been aware of the excesses of his subordinates . The Commission also identified 19 other military personnel involved in prisoner abuse , including the chaplain’s battalion.
As expected, the results of the commission will seriously affect the work of the British Ministry of Defence in respect of which the citizens of Iraq are already served more than a hundred lawsuits for damages.Projected resumption of criminal proceedings against B. Musa.
3. In August of this year appeared in the British media materials about the close contact British intelligence and special forces with the regime of Muammar Gaddafi. In particular, we are talking about the arrest in 2004 in Thailand with the filing of the English one of the leaders of the Libyan Islamic Fighting Group A. Belhadj (now head of the Military Council of Tripoli ) and his future with the CIA transported to their homeland, where British intelligence officers were involved in his “interrogation” torture after intelligence Gaddafi.
In addition, it was reported that British intelligence followed those living in the UK opponents of the regime and Qadhafi regularly reported to Tripoli on all their steps. London and put his hand to training Libyan military, and to instruct the Libyan special forces in Libya seconded employees Spetsnaz SAS.
4. Human rights violations are also found in the work of law enforcement . In July of this year Thames Valley police districts organized surveillance of spectators who came to the screening of a documentary film about nuclear weapons, which was seen as putting pressure on the citizens and the violation of freedom of assembly . Employees of the recorded data on the registration numbers of machines guest of the show, and were photo and video shoot. Similar measures were applied in the UK earlier to counter the environmental activist. Director of ‘Nuclear Information Service »(Nuclear Information Service) P. Burt said that such measures are taken against political activists, are possible only when” a totalitarian regime. “
5. One of the most high-profile scandals involving violation of the right to privacy of correspondence and telephone conversations , was the so-called “Nyusgeyt.” The newspaper “News of the World,” whose members practiced intercepting phone celebrities, politicians, as well as victims and relatives of resonant crimes, has been closed. Are parallel police and judicial investigation, arrested about a dozen journalists and private detectives. In the resignation was forced to apply leadership of Scotland Yard. Prison sentences are threatening the police.
6. In the last quarter there were several deaths suspected as a result of unprofessional actions of police during his arrest. At 53-year-old Philip Hulmsa and
27-year old Dale Burns’s heart gave out after using stun. 25-year-old Jacob Michael died from an allergic reaction to the pepper gas after transferred to the eyes of relatives and neighbors of the beatings, which involved 11 police officers.
7. Another resonant trial on the fact of torture, violence and other cruel or degrading treatment or punishment – it Kenyan businessman O. Awadh Omar, who sued the British government to acknowledgethe involvement of intelligence agencies in kidnapping of terror suspects . He was abducted by Ugandan security forces September 17, 2010 (2 months after the July terrorist attacks in Kampala), who accused him of the bombing, which killed 76 people. During the interrogation he was beaten and tortured. In the inquiry O. Awadh Omar, he said, was attended by representatives of American and British intelligence. In particular, he claims that in January of this year person, provide the staff of MI5, shows him to identify photographs of British nationals with ties to Somalia, or visiting the country.Representatives of the Foreign Office and Ministry of Internal Affairs of Great Britain has traditionally declined to comment on the situation concerning the activities of secret services. They try to hide behind the fact that published on March 29 instructions to staff of British diplomatic missions, which obliges them to report cases of torture, even if the person questioned is not one of those to whom they are obliged to provide consular assistance.
8. UK Ministry of Interior does not abandon the practice of forced deportation of illegal immigrants , including those in countries where they face torture and ill-treatment. In May 2010 it was announced that the Government does not intend to abandon the “diplomatic assurances” and expand their use. It was argued that this measure is sufficient to reduce the risk of torture. As part of this practice in Juneimmigration authorities deported a group of more than 20 Tamils in Sri Lanka. However, the operation of the deportation was not completely smooth, a few of the illegals prefer to make a suicide attempt. One of the unsuccessful suicide reported that he had received several calls from Sri Lanka with the threats. They are now in hospitals, but after discharge, the immigration authorities intend to send home.
Criticism of international and local human rights organizations is the state prison system in Hungary, the costs of the practice of Corrections, the conditions in prisons and detainees in detention facilities (to stay in jail, at the pretrial stage, overcrowding, poor diet, etc. .)
Constant “headache” of the ruling Hungarian cabinet is the position of the Roma population (according to official data, in Hungary there are 190-200 thousand, according to independent experts – to 1 million Gypsies, and the projected increase in their share of the total population to about 1 5 million by 2050). Disturbing human rights organization is conserved in Hungarian society to a steady reprehensible and openly negative attitudes towards Roma and anti-Roma sentiment growing.
After a series of violent attacks on Roma communities during 2008-2009., Hungarian NGOs reported these new facts. In September 2010, the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities expressed concern at the attacks on the Roma, noting that, despite the arrest of the alleged perpetrators, the country still reigns “atmosphere of fear.”
The UN Committee on Human Rights expressed concern about discrimination against Roma in education, housing, health and political participation , as well as the fact that there were no organized collection of statistical data broken down by ethnicity.
International and Hungarian human rights organizations have identified a number of structural weaknesses of the Hungarian criminal justice system . Among them – the fact that hate crimes are not classified and therefore not investigated as such. In November 2010 in the materials prepared for the Universal Periodic Review of human rights situation in Hungary in the framework of the UN Council on Human Rights, Hungarian NGOs have also expressed concern about the tendency to qualify the crime as “normal” rather than admit their hate crimes with aggravating racial motives. As a result, there is no open, credible statistics on the actual number of racially motivated crimes in Hungary.
In Hungary, there are problems with freedom of speech . Despite all the protests, the Hungarian Parliament passed two new laws on the media in September and December 2010, they were criticized by local NGOs, the press and the international community because of the possible consequences, including restrictions on the content of media materials, lack of clear rules for Journalists and editors are too broad powers to the new regulatory body. All together, this could lead to unfair restriction of freedom of speech. Created by the National Office of Media and Communications has acquired the right to impose heavy fines (up to 730 thousand euro in relation to essential media), if it considers that the content of materials contrary to “public interest”, “universal morality” and “national order.” Fines may also be imposed for “unbalanced” news reporting.
In Hungary, there are attempts to revise history, including the results of the Second World War . The leader of the parliamentary faction of the ruling party Fidesz J. Lazar, October 17 this year announced plans to amend the Criminal Code of the country, designed to create a legal basis to prosecute those involved in the suppression of the “revolution and the liberation struggle” in 1956, as well as functionaries of the former regime J. Kadar. Their act is supposed to qualify as crimes against humanity have no statute of limitations, and in the evaluation of evidence in such cases based on the decisions of the Nuremberg Tribunal and taken them into account other international legal acts. On this legal basis is planned to adopt legislation under which the pensions would be cut sufficiently wide range of people (former members of the party and state apparatus, the security services, the workers’ militia, the Komsomol, etc.), and the proceeds sent “to the victims of communist repression.” As stressed by J. Lazar, the foundation for such a move created a new Hungarian constitution, which invalidates the legal field period 1944-1990 gg. When Hungary “was under foreign occupation.” This attempt to “punish” members of the “socialist past” and turn inside out decisions of the Nuremberg process can be regarded as an obvious desire to retroactively exonerate mode M. Horthy, Hungary vvergnuvshego in war with the USSR on the side of Nazi Germany, as well as crimes of Hungarian fascists, vigorously promoted in t . h. “Final Solution of the Jewish question.”
Recently, trends in the human rights situation in the sphere of Poland studied by several international organizations. Greatest impact has caused the adoption of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe on 26 January this year Resolution number 1787, in which Poland has been ranked among the countries with serious problems with the implementation of decisions of the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR). Basic Polish “hot spots”: the judicial red tape and unwarranted use of temporary detention and unnecessarily long sentences, prison overcrowding and inadequate medical care of prisoners. The existence of these problems was confirmed by recent rulings the ECHR against the Republic of Poland in January-February The Strasbourg court ordered Warsaw to pay compensation amounting to two thousand euros F. Zbigniew, a thousand euros – T. Oscar for violations of the prisoners, as well as 10 thousand euros – E. Kupchaku (case № 2627/09) for failure to provide conclusion of the necessary drugs.
In December 2010 AOHR submitted a report on compliance in the EU the rights of refugee children , in which Poland is mentioned among the most disadvantaged in this regard states. Thus, the Centers for temporary stay of these children are often overcrowded, they noted a lack of food and medical care. In addition, according to the Agency, the Polish tutors and teachers are not adequately trained to work with refugee children. We can not exclude the issue of child trafficking in Poland – the report said AOHR.
Recently in Poland increased performance against the defenders’ lack of attention attitude of the Polish investigative authorities to anti-Semitism, racism, xenophobia and related intolerance. Thus, according to statistics, in 2007, when investigators stopped “for lack of evidence” 55% of such cases , then in 2010 the figure was 77%, and the percentage of accusations on them by 36 and 16% respectively. Taking into account these facts, the Attorney General of Poland sent a circular letter to Prosecutor’s Office with the recommendation of a more thorough analysis of this type of crime, taking into account recent changes in the Penal Code. The new rules of the Criminal Code, in particular, attributed to criminal offenses in the spread of Internet fascist symbols, as well as simplify the prosecution of participants in rallies and demonstrations, shouting anti-Semitic or racist slogans. Human rights activists are hoping that the revision will wait now such high-profile cases, as an insult to a university professor named. M.Sklodovskoy-Curie (Lublin) B. Edynak teacher of Judaism the same university M. Zavanovskoy, as well as the attack on flat theater director NN in Lublin, T. Petrasevicha dealing with the history of the Jewish population of this city. In both cases, the police saw no “anti-Semitic trace,” admitted the incident ordinary hooliganism by the fact that the victims were not Jews. Now, the charges may be brought and football fans who deployed during a match in g.Zheshuve in May 2010 anti-Semitic banners – Polish experts say.
The intervention of the Prosecutor General and required to revise the rule on high-profile case of vigilante justice on gipsy family, who were trying to organize people g.Limanova (Little Poland) in July 2010 as a result of Local prosecutors brought charges against only the Roma themselves, when they were the instigators of the fight. After the protest of the Helsinki Foundation for Human Rights (HFHR) Prosecutor’s Office conducted an analysis of all cases of xenophobia in Poland, for further investigation by sending 13 out of 48 similar cases filed in just the first six months of last year. As a result, prosecutors g.Limanova classified events in July 2010 as incitement to racial and ethnic intolerance, to reopen the investigation.
Great attention in Polish media was also a story of two children-pupils of the family’s home (6 and 9 years old) living with HIV, who refused to kindergartens, schools and commercial schools g.Toruni. After the intervention of human rights defenders, especially HFHR, the Polish Ombudsman for Children M. Michalak January 5, 2011 issued a statement condemning all forms of discrimination against the disabled and sick children . In his view, the actions of institutions and authorities Torun violate Art. 32 of the Constitution of Poland.
Profiling the European authorities and human rights organizations continue to criticize the Romanian authorities in connection with the situation in the field of human rights, noting the number of serious violations.
First, attention is drawn to the unsatisfactory state of affairs with respect for the rights of Roma , especially in terms of their access to employment and to create conditions for normal education.
The second systemic problem relating to the observance of human rights in Romania, traditionally called a violation of citizens’ rights to an independent judiciary . Moreover, the situation is getting worse in this area. Romanians demonstrate the lowest in the EU confidence in the judicial system – 26%, a figure from year to year declines.
Human rights organizations are also concerned about the situation in the penitentiary system of the country because of harsh conditions, overcrowding and the almost complete lack of medical care.According to their estimates, only about a third of the existing prisons in Romania to meet minimum standards in this area.
Among the shortcomings in the protection of human rights in Finland in 2011 (particularly, in reports in 2011 of the UN Committee against Torture and the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child, the ECtHR), which drew attention to the following:
In the field of investigation and legal proceedings are observed excessive length of investigation and trial (up to 8 years from the start of the investigation before the announcement of the decision of the court), untimely and inadequate provision of legal aid, respect for human suspects during searches and seizures. At this point repeatedly made decisions ECHR, including the current year.
The problems observed in the field of discrimination against refugees and immigrants:
1) Employment discrimination, largely Russian-speaking population in Finland concerns. In 2010, a report of the Commissioner for Minority Rights on the subject, revealing that the unemployment rate among Russian-speaking immigrants is 31%, while among the immigrant population as a whole is 17.6% among the general population – 8.8% .
2) social discrimination of immigrants in the first place, Gypsies, and Russian (mainly at the household level). In September of this year fined the owner of the flea market, failed to gypsy rental counter in connection with Enron a negative experience with the gypsies;
3) The manifestations of national intolerance on the part of the indigenous population. Fighting on a national basis – not a rare phenomenon in Finland. Including collisions occur between the various national groups of immigrants: so, in June 2010, there was a mass brawl in the central amusement park in Helsinki between Somalis and Kurds. All the more recent cases of vandalism against the property of immigrants and their associations. In 2010, three times subjected to damage property under construction in Finland’s first Buddhist temple;
4) The rejection by the authorities of private cultural life of various nationalities. In May of this year attracted the attention of the media graduate student at the University of Tampere dissertation J. Hiitola, in which she argued prejudice against immigrants from the Finnish courts of trusteeship. In the investigated it more than 300 cases the problems of raising children in immigrant families are always attributed to the personal qualities of their parents due to cultural differences and their inability to civilized countries educate their children. In this case the parents, the Finnish major cause of parental failures called “fatigue” and to explain the problems of immigrant parents, this reason was not seen in any of the cases;
5) The diversion of refugees to other EU countries, where much less likely to provide them with shelter;
6) lack of humane treatment of refugees and immigrants for family reunification. In 2010, the popularity of the so-called business “Grandmothers”: for ill elderly Egyptian Eveline Fadayel and Russians Irina Antonova, who arrived in Finland to stay with relatives on tourist visas, decisions were made about the deportation. Irina Antonova relatives agreed to deport relatives of E. Fadayel hid her, after which the Finnish authorities have extended her visa as an exception. Both women died in 2011, relatives of deported Russians went to court to demand compensation for moral damages. In September of this yearbegan consideration of the Administrative Court of Turku similar case, 87-year old Kosovo Albanian Kostanitsy Ramadan. Finnish Parliament in 2010 considered it inappropriate to change the legislation to address this problem.
7) lack of professionals working with refugees and immigrants. The Report of the UN Committee against Torture, for example, noted the complete absence of ethnic minorities in the judiciary.
There is also a high level of domestic violence in general and with respect to the spouses, in particular, widely used in Finnish schools bullying and violence among students, the high rate of suicide; excessively high rates of mental disorders among children and youth, and insufficient knowledge about the causes of this situation, high latency of sexual crimes and not harsh punishments for those crimes. In August of this year, for example, caused a public reprimand verdict against the four men who committed rape 14-year-old girl. They received between 40 days to 6 months conditionally suspended, plus a fine ranging from 500 to 3,000 euros. Another attracting attention in this case was – received in June suspended sentence for rape of a child the man continued to work coach the football team under-age girls, because the law does not require a report from the criminal records of persons working as volunteers.
There are disturbances in mental / neurological care : lack of peer review or judicial review under involuntary commitment, electroconvulsive therapy without consent, unreasonable appointment of potent psychotropic drugs in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children (Report of the UN Committee against Torture).
Violations of freedom of speech , recorded in the ECtHR on the adoption of a restrictive interpretation of Finland, which prohibit interference with the media in privacy.
Gender differences in pay for equal work in the private sector – in 2010, “Women’s Euro” was worth 81 cents.
Another problem is the absence of a coherent national policy on the Russian-speaking population of the country, although this is the third largest national group after the titular nation and the Swedes.Recommendations of the Committee of Ministers to ensure the rights of Russian speakers as a national minority are performed poorly. Recommendation of the Working Group on the Rights of Minorities to establish a separate advisory body on Finland’s Russian-speaking population has been ignored, despite the treatment of local Russian-speaking organizations.
The UN Commission on Human Rights of the Child has repeatedly drawn attention to the inadequacy of the legislative and political support in Finland, the child’s right to express their opinions to the authorities on matters related to his questions; excessively high number of children removed from families (16 thousand children are currently living outside their families) and insufficient knowledge about the causes of this situation, excessively long review of disputes about custody.
With regard to the important from the Russian point of view of deficiencies in the human rights situation in Finland is still the most relevant following cases:
1. “Salonen thing” . In 2008, having Russian and Finnish citizenship Rimma Salonen exported to Russia, his 5-year-old son Anton without the consent of the father of Finn. The father immediately went to the police, criminal proceedings were instituted. On hearing this, my mother decided not to return to Finland. In 2009 the father took the child by force in the mother in Russia and brought back to Finland in the trunk of the diplomatic machinery of the Finnish vice-consul. Who came after her son in Finland Rimma Salonen was convicted of international child abduction and custody rights denied. Free legal assistance provided by Rimma Salonen, was so inadequate that, in her words, her lawyer refused to listen to and gave the impression that he sees his task does not protect its interests, and support the charge. Embassy it was recommended by another attorney. Currently, Rimma Salonen, allowed to meet with his son 1-2 times a month under the supervision of social workers. During these meetings, the mother and son were originally forbidden to communicate in Russian, and this decision was upheld as lawful by the court. After attracting attention by the Russian side to a mismatch of the ban international human rights standards, de facto it was canceled. At the same time, continues to operate social service ban on conversations during the meetings of Orthodoxy (the mother of an active parishioner, son baptized in the Orthodox faith). In June this year Representative Rima Salonen was prepared by a complaint to the ECHR.
2. “Putkonen Case” : Social Services in Helsinki in 2010 seized the girl Julia Putkonen, a Finnish citizen, her mother, a citizen of Russia Valentina Putkonen, and identified her residence with her father, a citizen of Finland Jouni Putkonenom in St. Petersburg where he lives and works. Julie currently resides in Russia, the mother is entitled to the meeting.
3. “Rantala Case” : having Russian and Finnish citizenship child Robert Rantala in December 2009 has been withdrawn the social services to parents – a Russian citizen Inga and Finn-Pekka Rantala Willie.He escaped from the orphanage (in Finnish is estimated that it took away from there mother) and after the intervention of the Commissioner of the President of the Russian Federation on the Rights of the Child AP Astakhov was returned to her parents. In June 2010, her mother took away her son under the written permission of his father in St. Petersburg. In Finland Inga is not going to come back, because there it must stand trial on charges of causing injuries to his son, because of what the child was removed from the family. According to her, she disappears from the court, not because of possible punishment but to protect the child from the room next to the shelter.
4. Has Russian citizenship residing in Finland , Clara Sitnov Toivonen was to address the Russian court, guardian of her grandson Vladimir Bogdanov, who was seized of the Finnish Social Services in 2009 and placed in a social institution. In a vacation that his grandson was allowed to spend with her grandmother, she went with him to St. Petersburg to the family and at the request of his grandson (he is more than 12 years) gave them the right care, because the boy wanted to live in the family, rather than in a shelter. On his return to Finland in relation to it was filed about the kidnapping.
5. In IG Tiensuu the autumn of 2010 seized the daughter of 15 years in connection with the attempted suicide. According to his mother, the attempt has been linked to rape the girl, and not with the situation in the family. Mother and daughter, in writing, stated objections to the placement in a shelter. At the request Konsotdela was discussed that by law, any attempt to commit suicide is grounds for removal, as well as the Finnish social authorities consider inapplicable to the removal of children who claim the Consular Convention between the USSR and Finland report in konsuchrezhdeniya deprivation of liberty of a citizen of the country, has appointed consul.
France is increasingly becoming the target of criticism from international and our own French human rights organizations (“Amnesty International”, “International Federation of Human Rights”, “Reporters Without Borders”, etc.). A growing resentment cause of human rights defenders present course of the authorities to tighten immigration policies, strengthening the fight against illegal migration, new approaches and requirements for the integration of immigrants into French society, the conditions of detention in French prisons, interference in the media .
Greatest impact in human rights circles caused by the authorities to evict the shares of Romanian and Bulgarian Roma (infesting the country, after the citizens of Romania and Bulgaria have the right to 90-day visa-free entry into the Schengen area). Since July 2010, Paris began to eliminate illegal Roma settlements and their inhabitants return to their homeland (and by the French budget), which caused discontent not only among human rights activists, but also in Brussels.
The second large-scale “campaign” for the expulsion of illegal immigrants, giving rise to many protests from human rights advocates, and touched people from North African countries (mainly Tunisia) , who, under the pretext of the “Arab spring” had tried through the Italian island of Lampedusa, Italy and the mainland illegally move to France. Paris worked hard – temporarily reinstated border controls with Italy, were caught and returned uninvited guests.
Human rights NGOs relentlessly criticize any government efforts to increase the requirements for the integration of legal immigrants into French society. In particular, last year amended the legislation to toughen conditions for the reunification of immigrant families receive the right to asylum and French citizenship. Strictly to comply with President Chirac has a law banning the wearing of religious symbols in public schools. Bans on the wearing of the burqa in public places and to perform religious ceremonies and prayers in the streets.
Official Paris threshold rejects attacks against human rights defenders. The authorities promise to increase the fight against illegal aliens. It is noted that the countries are sent not only the Arabs or Gypsies, and all illegal immigrants – regardless of their origin.
Immigration Act , which came into force in late 2007, restricted the right to family reunification and allowed DNA analysis to confirm the relationship, has been widely criticized, even by the State Ethics Commission.
The European Court of Human Rights and the UN Committee against Torture often fix violations of the principle of “non-refoulement” and the right to an effective remedy by the State .
The French justice system is often drawn criticism from the EU and human rights NGOs. Unduly stretch the term of investigation have been delays with the transfer of cases to the courts. During the litigation unduly restricted access to the case of the accused party. Generally, cases of police ill-treatment from legal and illegal immigrants and French citizens of foreign origin as in the pre-trial detention, and during repatriation. All human rights organizations claim to de facto impunity for law and the French guards on the judges of bias and inadequacy of their decisions in such cases.
According to “Amnesty International” and the Commission of the Council of Europe, because of the unsatisfactory state prisons because of overcrowding and unsanitary prison conditions of their detention, the French prison, the worst in the European Union.
France criticized for its adoption in March 2004 law banning the wearing of religious symbols in public schools, which characterizes it as violating the rights of freedom of religion and restricting the right to education . Young Muslim women are faced with a choice: either to remove the headscarf or leave the public school.
Of particular concern among human rights activists provoked the situation related to the deportation of Gypsies .
August 19, 2010 began the expulsion of Roma in Romania and Bulgaria. Total government planned to deport some 700 Roma. The deportations were carried out on a voluntary basis. Each adult received a deportee from the government of 300 euros for each child was allocated € 100. 20 and 26 August in Romania flew planes with the gypsies.
September 9, 2010 The European Parliament adopted an appeal to France to immediately stop the deportation of Roma migrants in Bulgaria and Romania. With the condemnation of Paris made the United Nations.
France ignored the requirement of the European Parliament to stop the expulsion of Roma. According to EU Commissioner for Justice, Viviane Reding (Viviane Reding), Paris violated the laws of the European Union on freedom of movement I am.
In France there are about 400 thousand Roma. The vast majority of whom live in the country for centuries. All of them are French citizens, and their nomadic way of life is a kind of cultural heritage, and the law obliges local authorities to allocate land for a gypsy camp. About 15 thousand people – immigrants from Eastern Europe, mainly from Romania and Bulgaria.
In 2009 about 11 thousand Eastern European Gypsies were deported to their homeland, but soon most of them returned to France. Since 2010, the French sent back to Romania and Bulgaria, about eight thousand gypsies, and only in August the number of deportees was a thousand people.
The scandal that erupted around the Gypsies became an occasion to tighten immigration laws in France. For the original version of the draft law on immigration status were added, according to which French nationality can be deprived of any person of foreign origin, which threatened the life of a policeman, gendarme or any other representative of the law.
In addition, the bill proposes simplifying the procedure for the expulsion of Roma illegals. It includes a directive on the return, which provides an opportunity for the Administration to accompany the decision to expel a ban on returning to the EU for a period of 3 to 5 years.
A report issued in late May of this year Report of the UN Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights provides a wide range of claims against Germany in the field of human rights: the continuation of social and employment discrimination against refugees and migrants, restrictions on access for disabled people in the labor market, poor living conditions in nursing homes, lack of child preschool, a ban on strike for several categories of civil servants, gender discrimination in employment and promotion .
Separately emphasized the need to combat child poverty (according to the Committee, in Germany under the poverty line are 2.5 million children).
Most complaints about human rights concerns of the migration policy of the FRG. The government’s actions in this area of Germany drew criticism from the Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights Thomas Hammarberg, who called the erroneous claims of migrants immediate learning the language of the host country and the rapid adaptation to the national peculiarities of the German reality. In a letter to the Minister of Internal Affairs of Germany (at the time this position was occupied by the current Minister of Defence T. de Maiziere) on November 15, 2010, Hammarberg said in a discriminatory policy in Berlin against members of the Sinti and Roma ethnic groups , urging them to abandon the practice forced expulsions in Kosovo.
The report of the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention of the Council of Europe on the Protection of National Minorities on the state of human rights in Germany (December 2010) noted the need to create in Germany more favorable conditions for promoting the use of national minorities in their mother tongue in everyday life.
As presented during the 14th session of the Human Rights Council (June 2010) report, the UN special rapporteur on contemporary forms of racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia and related intolerance, Mr. Muigai emphasized that in Germany reinforced the atmosphere of “deep-seated racism “but the authorities have taken” insufficient effort “to eradicate these problems. Subjected to criticism as the valid legal regulations in Germany to live in a country of refugees that do not involve giving them the right to free choice of residence.
Known human rights NGOs, including “Amnesty International”, “Human Rights Watch,” and others, repeatedly pointed to the facts of xenophobia and racism, deficiencies in the prison system, the deterioration of the situation of migrants and refugees . Concern for human rights causes failure of Germany to sign and ratify the Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. According to “Amnesty International” annually in the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany comes to 12 thousand claims for violations of political, economic, social, ethnic and religious rights.
NGO accuses security forces of arrests of suspects of involvement in terrorism and illegal extradition to the authorities of the States of which they are (in this case points to the failure of “diplomatic assurances” against torture against suspects). In this context, human rights circles pay attention to the decision of the Ministry of Justice of Germany in January, has rejected a proposal from the Bundestag deputy Left Party B. Neskovicha require the issuance of U.S. 13 CIA agents. They are charged with kidnapping in 2003 in Macedonia, a German citizen of Lebanese descent, H. Al-Masri and his illegal detention in a prison in Afghanistan. In 2007, the Administrative Court of Munich prosecutor’s office granted the request for a warrant of arrest of these agents, but the Ministry of Justice of Germany descended deal “on the brakes.”
“The piggy bank” crime can be recorded in the mass media published in January of this year information about the facts of the secret opening is supposed to employees of the Federal Intelligence Service (BND) and Military Intelligence (MAD) e-mail correspondence of German troops serving in Afghanistan .
In 2010, Germany 26 times was found guilty of violations of ECHR rights and fundamental freedoms, mainly relating to the denial of justice to release from custody of serious crimes particularly dangerous persons after they have served their prison sentences because their release continued to represent a threat to society . The court ordered the German legislators to revise the relevant regulations.
Particularly unfortunate defenders is the fact that Germany has not yet ratified the UN Convention against Corruption, as well as the Council of Europe Criminal and Civil Law Convention on Corruption.
In Sweden, the address received in the comments field of human rights violations by both international institutions (UN, the European Court of Human Rights, Council of Europe, European Parliament) and the leading non-governmental human rights organizations (“Human Rights Watch” and “Amnesty International”).
In particular, the UN Council on Human Rights in 2011, drew the attention of the Swedish authorities on the need for action to combat racism and xenophobia, hate crimes, discrimination against migrants, ethnic minorities and indigenous peoples, as well as the elimination of violence against women .
Sufficiently high number of lawsuits and complaints against Sweden in the ECHR, primarily the European Convention on Human Rights and Fundamental freedoms (annual average of more than 400 lawsuits and dozens of convictions).
UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination has repeatedly criticized the Swedish policy on national minorities and immigrants, indicating that the migration department of the country often refuse to issue residence permits to people really in need of shelter.
Human rights organization “Human Rights Watch” and “Amnesty International” in their reports have repeatedly noted that the Swedish Migration Office in individual cases does not accept asylum applications from nationals of Eritrea. As a result, refugees are at risk of being sent home, although the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, and recommended that governments of all countries to stop forcible return of people in this country.
In some cases, to address the issues of asylum, especially when at the same time there is some political background, the Swedish authorities applied a double standard . As an example – a politically motivated refusal of the Swedish extradition to Russia of those accused of committing serious criminal offenses (M. Uspaeva, A. Adayev) . The fact that the Swedish justice were given all the materials proving their involvement in crime, including of banditry and terrorist activity, actions are not conceived.
Continue to be relevant issues of racial discrimination , manifested in particular in matters of employment – management of Swedish companies generally prefer to hire indigenous Swedes. According to the NGO “Center Against Racism”, by far the difference in employment between immigrants and specialty Sweden is about 20%.
Council of Europe, as well as a number of international human rights organizations have noted that Sweden is making enough effort to comply with the signed it in 2000, Council of Europe Conventionon the Rights of National Minorities . Experts have concluded that there is not enough intensity to account the population speaking the languages of national minorities (in Sweden this status are 5 languages. It is stressed that the Swedish authorities to provide all children with the representatives of minority nationalities the possibility of training in two languages - their mother, and Swedish.
In addition, in January 2009, legislation came into force on being read electronic messages (2008:717). Under its provisions, the Swedish security services have the right to monitor all the needed information on the Internet, and listen to conversations on the mobile and conventional telephone communications of any suspected criminal or terrorist activities of the person without proper authorization from the judiciary. It is noteworthy that the “anti-terrorist” thrust of the Act does not preclude the continuation of work on the server Swedish ISP Chechen rebel website “Kavkaz-Center”.
Discriminatory policy of the authorities of the Baltic states against the Russian minority living there almost unchanged.
Of particular concern is the unresolved problem of mass statelessness in Latvia (about 330 thousand “aliens”) and Estonia (about 100 thousand “aliens”) and consequent violation of rights of Russian minorities in those countries. Despite repeated recommendations from international and human rights groups, naturalization proceedings is not made easier for the elderly and children “aliens” do not provide automatic citizenship by birth . This creates a problem of self-reproduction of statelessness.
It is still unsolved problem of providing a “non-citizens’ active and passive electoral rights in Latvia and active suffrage in municipal elections in Estonia. And this despite the fact that this category of citizens of the Baltic states is a bona fide taxpayers. This also applies to by the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) concerns limit the rights of “non-citizens” to participate in political parties.
CERD is concerned about the excessive emphasis on the use of Estonian language and the language of the sanctions. All the more so that punitive measures are not conducive to motivate minorities to study the state language and to naturalization. A similar situation holds in Latvia.
If in Latvia and Estonia, the main problem is the mass statelessness and extremely low rates of naturalization , the reduction of Russian-language information and cultural and educational space, as well as the persecution of World War II veterans and law enforcement agencies of the former USSR have the addition of these countries and in Lithuania.
Of particular concern is the continuation of all three Baltic states lines to rewrite the history of World War II ( glorification of Nazi collaborators, public meetings Legionnaires ‘Waffen SS’ desecration of monuments, marches and camps of the nationalist-minded youth, the pursuit of veterans that put the health and often life for the liberation of Europe, including Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia from Nazi enslavement) , equalization of the Nazi and Soviet regimes, attempts to glorify the Nazis and their local collaborators. This line is one of the key factors in fostering a community of neo-Nazi, racist, extremist, provoking displays of nationalism, xenophobia and anti-Semitism, racial and religious intolerance.
A distinctive feature of the human rights situation in the Latvian society is the mass statelessness. According to the Office of Citizenship and Migration in Latvia on 1 July this year, it amounts to 319 267 people (about 14.3% of the population) and gradually decreases mainly due to deaths and immigration.
Saved 79 restrictions on the rights of “aliens” , including such fundamental as the right to elect and be elected. This includes a ban on the trade, of which there are 47. “Non-citizens” in Latvia can not hold state and municipal offices to be judges, prosecutors and lay judges elected to serve in the army. They also denied the right to found political parties to enter into a real estate transaction without the consent of the municipal authorities, etc.
“Non-citizens” are not recognized by authorities as a national minority. Latvia ratified the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) May 26, 2005 with two caveats, impairing the provisions of the Convention, under which the national minorities in their places of compact residence of the opportunity communicate in their native language with the authorities, as well as use their language in topographical names. In addition, adopted at Latvian Parliament ratified an additional declaration clarifies that the “aliens” are not subjects of the said Convention. With more than 50% of the population living in major cities of Latvia (Riga, Daugavpils and Liepaja) in its ethnic composition is the Russian language.
In recent years, steadily falling rates of naturalization (with 19 169 people. in 2005, up to 2336 people. – in 2010), and the policy of integration of Latvian society at an impasse. In the Latvian government approved in October of this year the document “Key policy issues of national identity and social integration (2012-2018 gg.)” formulated the key line installation to the full assimilation of Russian-speaking population. This program states that the priorities of official Riga in this region are strengthening the position of the Latvian language and culture and ensuring adherence to European values of democracy, “the formation of a cohesive national memory” based on loyalty to the concept of “Soviet occupation”.
The consequences of such policies become so negative, that were the subject of constant concern to European human rights bodies and other international organizations. Bad situation of human rights in Latvia in recent years, in particular: the OSCE High Commissioner on National Minorities Knut Vollebaek (in November 2010, at the OSCE Permanent Council in Vienna in February this year during a visit to Latvia, in April this year in the statements of the International Institute for Peace in New York and Political Studies named. Woodrow Wilson in Washington, DC) Human Rights Commissioner Thomas Hammarberg Council of Europe (in December 2010 on the fourth conference CoE in Strasbourg on citizenship) Expert Committee on the Implementation of International Labour Organization (December 2010 meeting of the Committee on the ILO).
March 30 The Committee of Ministers (CECM) adopted a resolution on the implementation of Latvia’s Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (RKZN). This made possible the publication of an independent monitoring body count RKZN – Advisory Committee (CC). The resolution reaffirmed the assessment as a whole spacecraft. It states that require problem solving priority of the persistent high number of ‘aliens’, including among children born after August 21, 1991 indicating an invalid language discrimination in the workplace and communication, reducing the opportunities for learning the languages of national minorities in public schools of Latvia. Calls on Latvia to address deficiencies relating to the participation of representatives of national minorities in public life, including municipal elections.
May 5 this year 11th session of the Working Group of the UN Human Rights Council (HRC) on the universal periodic review (UPR) in Geneva reviewed the situation with human rights in Latvia, includingbased on the report prepared by the Government of LR on the human rights situation in the country. In it, as usual, presented a rather blurry picture, not giving a complete picture of the true situation in this area. At the same time in the reporting process were involved, not all Latvian NGOs. Excluded, especially those representing the Russian-speaking population. Among them – the Latvian Human Rights Committee (LKPCH).
In this regard, LKPCH sent to the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights UN alternative material, based on original research in the field of mass statelessness, language discrimination, the unequal status of minorities in the labor market, significant demographic differences between Latvians and non.
LKPCH, in particular, draws attention to the fundamental differences in the estimates and emphasis contained in these materials, although both were written by the same pattern. Thus, the government refers to HR international instruments to which the official Riga joined, and LKPCH – those in which Latvia is in no hurry to join because they provide the right of individual petition to the international court.
Following a discussion of the situation in Geneva, which was attended by representatives from 43 UN member countries, including Russia, the Latvian side expressed a number of (122)-oriented recommendations.
On 6 September Latvian government in closed session considered the recommendations of the HRC on the basis of the discussion of the human rights situation in Latvia 5 May this year in Geneva at the 11th session of the HRC Working Group on the UPR. From the press release the Latvian Foreign Ministry in this regard that some of the key claims, in particular, the immediate elimination of the status of “aliens” are categorically unacceptable to Riga.
As “a challenge for Latvia,” described the situation “aliens” who are deprived of voting rights, who was in the country in September Head of the Limited Election Observation Mission’s Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE / ODIHR), K. Olszewski. In his view, the Latvian government is not paying enough attention to issues of social integration, while the OSCE has no effective leverage, but to constantly remind their recommendations in the human rights sphere, and from time to time to pay attention to the situation in this area. “The fact that” aliens “did not participate in elections and remain members, – said K. Olszewski, – is still a challenge.” He also noted the absence in Latvia the right to stand for election to independent candidates, contrary to its OSCE commitments.
Inaction of the Latvian authorities and the virtual neglect of the many recommendations of international bodies has led a number of human rights organizations in Latvia (Union citizens and “aliens”, “humanitarian perspective” and LKPCH) request in August 12 international organizations asking about how these structures respond to failure by Latvia of the recommendations. In it, in particular, notes that since 1995 the number of “non-citizens” declined by about 380 000 people (from 700 thousand to 319 267 people).. 40% of them have acquired Latvian citizenship through naturalization, 32% – have died in this status, 17% – have emigrated, and 11% – have taken the citizenship of third countries. At the same time, the naturalization process in recent years gradually slowed down – a year undergo this procedure, only about 1% of “non-citizens.”
September 9 this year Head of the Joint Congress of Russian Communities “noncitizen” A. Gaponenko appealed to the Constitutional Court to recognize the LR does not comply with the Constitution of the Law on elections to local government, enshrining the right to choose self only to citizens of Latvia. A. Gaponenko reasoning boils down to that art. 91 of the Constitution guarantees the implementation of HR human rights, without any exceptions or discrimination.
August 28 this year at the regional conference of Russian compatriots of the Baltic States in Riga, a prominent human rights, representative LKPCH B. Buzaev published a report “National policy and demography of the Russian population in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia,” in which he practically accused the authorities of these countries in the genocide of the Russian population .
As justification for its version of A. Buzaev cited three features characteristic of this kind of action.
The first – for the intentional creation of an ethnic group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction. The second – measures intended to prevent births within the group. Third – Forcibly transferring children from one ethnic group to another.
With regard to Latvia, it is expressed, in my opinion, that the mortality rate among minorities is on average 18%, and the birth rate is 25% lower than the Latvians. Compared with 1990, the number of students of Latvian schools has decreased by 14%, and Russian schools – 64%. In 2009 the first classes of Russian schools it is 20% less than the number semiletok-Latvians, and Latvian schools – 12% more than was semiletok-Latvians, because of the closure of Russian schools have Russian-speaking parents to send their children to school with the Latvian language training.
Discriminatory policy of the Latvian authorities with regard to minorities led to increased ethnic conflict in the Latvian society and unleashes the national radicals, which are from the 10th to the Sejm (October 2010) are all from the parliamentary rostrum intensifying offensive against the Russian language in the country. In practice, this is already reflected in the adoption of the bill to toughen penalties for failure to state language and expanding the list of professions that require a high level of language skills.
According to the latest data from the Department of Statistics 13.2% of the Lithuanian population are ethnic minorities Excluding 3.7% of the population of Lithuania, whose nationality was not specified. .According to representatives of national communities living in Lithuania, as well as a number of authoritative international organizations, the official policy of the State of Lithuania is not always consistent with the principles of international law regarding the protection of the rights and interests of minorities. With great perseverance to protest the Polish population of the country , actively supported including Poland national level, a strategic partner of Lithuania in the European Union. In the last two years for defending their rights, with the Polish community, consolidated a number of acts of Russian political and social organizations . Thus the basic similarities of the two largest national goals of diasporas are directed against the policies of local authorities on the assimilation of living in the country against minorities fundamental international instruments, including the document of the Copenhagen Meeting of the Conference on the Human Dimension in accordance with which “persons belonging to national minorities have the the right to freely express, preserve and develop their ethnic, cultural, linguistic or religious identity and to maintain and develop their culture in all its aspects, free of any attempts at assimilation against their will “. . Official data of the Department of Statistics of Lithuania in recent years to objectively confirm the tendency to reduce the number of ethnic communities , for example, in 1989 Russian was 9.4% of the population of Lithuania, in 2001 (last census) – 6.3%, and 2011 according to the Lithuanian Department of Statistics – 4.8%. That is, Russian population declined over 20 years of independence Lithuania almost doubled. Thus, in the opinion of the Lithuanian sociologist and director of research of public opinion and market «Vilmorus” B. Gaidis, “one of the first reasons for reducing the number of Russian is their assimilation.” A similar trend is typical of other communities in Lithuania (reducing the number of communities compared with 1989 to 2011.) Ukrainians from 1.2% to 0.6%, Byelorussian 1.7% to 1.1%, Polish 7% to 6% of the Jews from 0.3% to 0.1%. The number of Lithuanians in the percentage ratio to total population increased from 79.6% in 1989 to 83.1% in 2011 .
Lithuania has acceded to the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (Strasbourg, 05.11.1992 was) despite the fact that its territory nationals of the “traditionally used” languages of ethnic minorities and those languages are the “means of communicating a sufficient number of persons in order to justify the adoption of various measures to protect and promote the language provided by the present Charter ” Part 1 of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. .
Ethnic minorities mark a significant setback in pursuing their rights in recent years : in 2009, was abolished by the Department of National Minorities and Emigration under the Government Established by the Government of LR dated 14.02.2003, for the implementation of policies of ethnic minorities. , stopped the Law “On National Minorities “(from 23.11.1989, the) in 2009 Seimas is not extended it, as was done previously. , many of which have not been implemented. Significantly worsened the possibility of ethnic minorities in the field of information in their native language, according to the Statistics Department in 1995, were published in Lithuania, 44 Russian-language publications, in 2009 the number was 16. Decreases and the total circulation of publications in Russian: with 14.7 million copies. in 2008 to 11.8 million copies. Decreases in 2009 percentage of airtime for programs in Russian and other languages of national minorities on state television. At present it is 0.7%. For example, reduced the duration of the program “Russian Street” for Russian-speaking audience from 30 to 13 minutes due to its supposedly low ratings. . In the Diet began to discuss amendments to HR about science and education, under which substantially reduced the number of hours of teaching in native languages, and will put one in the state language exam for students of Lithuanian schools and schools of national minorities. It is still not satisfied the requirements of national minorities to use their names in accordance with the rules of their native language. Despite the current practices and European legislation in Lithuania banned the use of minority language (along with the state) in the writing of geographical names, even in localities where its representatives are more than 80% of the population. In 2008, the Administrative Court banned the inscription in Russian and Polish languages installed in places of compact residence of national minorities (Vilnius and Shalchininksky areas), which is also contrary to Section 3 of Article 11 of the RK. Only in 2010 for public use of the Polish language (of course, along with the state) has reported several cases of administrative punishment in the form of penalties against officials of local government and entrepreneurs.
The new version of HR Law “On Education” ( adopted March 30) does not comply with certain provisions of the OSCE documents and does not reflect the opinion of Russian and Polish communities have drawn on the eve of a vote in the Diet over 60 thousand signatures against it. Thus, in the Paris Charter for a New Europe of 11/21/1990, the record that the CSCE participating States undertake to improve the situation of ethnic minorities (and not worsen it), and document the Copenhagen Conference on the Human Dimension (29.06.1990 was) in the n .33 to such protection, they “take action after due consultations, including contacts with organizations or associations of such minorities.” In addition, it should be noted that in his comments on the amendments to the Law on Education of Lithuania representatives of the authorities referred to the statistics do not relate directly to students in schools of ethnic minorities (ie, the receipt and completion of high school graduates of the Lithuanian minority schools).
In addition, the Polish and Jewish communities require early resolution of issues the return of property to former owners, noticing infringement of their rights as compared with the titular nationality.
A report issued by the European Commission against Racism and Intolerance (ECRI) in September Report on Lithuania as a serious deficiency in the human rights field notes formed the legal vacuum of regulation of the national minorities after a 2010 law stopped working in 1989 on national minorities. And criticized provision of the law on presidential elections, exclusive to the citizens of Lithuania nelitovskogo descent the opportunity to be a candidate for the presidential election.
Traditionally, pay close attention to ECRI situation of the Roma . It is noted that the program is to integrate the Roma 2008-2010. did not produce any tangible results, despite some positive initiatives to remedy the situation in the field of education. The most serious problems occur in the employment of Roma and to provide them with housing .
The Commission draws attention to the preservation of more marked in the previous monitoring cycle of anti-Semitism .
There is no clear policy on the situation of other minorities . The role of the Council of National Minorities is minimized, with virtually no consult. ECRI draws attention to problems of national minorities in the area of the right to education in mother tongue: the lack of a proper amount of academic literature in the languages of ethnic minorities, lack of adequately trained teachers, increase the share of education in practice for the Lithuanian language in minority schools, ie the actual displacement of other languages of the learning process .
Estimates of the human rights situation in Lithuania by the international community (11 October in Geneva, the UN Council on Human Rights as part of the Universal Periodic Review of human rights in UN member states considered the human rights situation in Lithuania) show that in Lithuania there are serious human rights problems – the discriminatory policy of the authorities in respect of national and linguistic minorities, racism and anti-Semitism, the plight of the prison system, human trafficking, child rights violations, women, disabled and other UN Member States carried the Lithuanian side, a significant number of recommendations. Russia stressed the need to eradicate racism and neo-Nazism , ending attempts to revise the outcome of World War II, Nazi henchmen and heroes of anti-fascist veterans harassment, discrimination, Russian-speaking population of Lithuania in the cultural and linguistic spheres .
During consideration in Geneva by the UN Human Rights under the Universal Periodic Review of human rights situation in Lithuania in October this year, Justice Minister of this country R. Shimashiyus in his speech actually equated the Soviet Union to Nazi Germany , saying that “both the regime violated human rights “and” occupied Lithuania. ” These statements made the official state representative, chairman of the OSCE, which gives them a special character is invalid.
Distortion and falsification of facts and events related to World War II , “Soviet period” of Lithuania, the country gained independence in Lithuania are growing in scale and in fact are raised to the rank of state policy. Continues the practice of large-scale campaigns in conjunction with the “significant” dates associated mainly with the “black pages of the Soviet past,” “conquest,” independence: the 20th anniversary of the shooting “guards” in Medininkai (in August in Vilnius District Court for the application of the Prosecutor General of Lithuania has appointed a measure of restraint in the form of arrest in absentia against three citizens of Russia A. Ryzhov, and A. C. Mlynnika Laktionova suspects in the murder of Lithuanian Themis to “checkpoint” in Medininkai July 31, 1991 Lithuanian “border guards”, issued by the European warrant for their arrest), 22-th anniversary of the campaign “Baltic Way”, the 20-th anniversary of the “last victim okkypatsii Lithuania” – “defender of the Supreme Council” A. Sakalauskas, day of remembrance of victims of killings, “the Soviet repressive organs” in Tuskulenay etc. . On a regular basis, they take part and top government foreign minister , who has repeatedly voiced publicly known “postulates” of the “Soviet occupation” and the need for compensation of “damage”, “Soviet genocide of Lithuanians.” Lithuanian side strongly emphasized the “historical significance” of Russian-Lithuanian agreement on the foundations of international relations (in the preamble referred to the annexation of Lithuania).
Sustained efforts to consolidate the “okkypatsionnyh installations” in the legal field of the country made mainly through the legislature, the press and partisan NGOs. Thus, the Conservative government has recently approved the idea to give the status of “victims of okkypatsy 1939-1990 gg. persons “those who, after the restoration of independence of LR” forced to undergo military service in the Soviet Army. ” In addition, in the Diet a bill designed to give the status of “party of resistance to Soviet occupation regime” not only “fighters against the first occupation of 1940-1941.” But also “those who fought against the regime in okkypatsionnogo 1944-1990 gg..”
Lithuanian authorities in nastypatelnom way both domestically and in international markets continued to operate and the theme of “crimes of the Soviet security forces during the events of January 13, 1991.”To spin up, including in the context of anti-Russian, Vilnius shares in addition to multi-level around the incident in Vienna MV Golovatovym also used the trial of A. Paleckis, chairman of the party “Socialist People’s Front”, persecuted for his public statements that run counter to the official of the Lithuanian version of events January 13 1991 in Vilnius (in the trial several witnesses testified in favor of A. Paleckis. At the same time, the Lithuanian authorities doing their best to conceal these facts.)
Considerable effort Vilnius continues to make for protrusion of historical significance “heroic struggle” Lithuanian partisans, the so-called “Forest Brothers”. Received state aid was widely publicized event – Opening of Šventoji monument in honor of Fighters “For the Freedom of Lithuania”, to communicate the “resistance” to Western countries through the Baltic Sea in 1944-1953 years.
Despite the declared the country a year “Holocaust” and the adoption of the Law “On compensation of immovable property of Jewish Religious Communities,” the official Vilnius continues to obscure the inconvenient historical facts connected with the destruction of themselves with the participation of Lithuanian Jewish population of Lithuania during the Second World the war. Nor can we fail to note intensifying the country’s various anti-Semitic nationalists, who practically suppressed by the authorities.
In Vilnius, in recent years conducted the procession of young neo-Nazis. In August of this year with state financial support by the National Union of Youth of Lithuania was organized a summer camp in the place of compact residence of national minorities under Devyanishkese nationalist slogans “Lithuania for Lithuanians” and “purification of the Slavic and Germanic languages.”
Characteristically, the historical claims of Lithuania goes beyond the Soviet period. Actively involved issue the 1831 uprising “against tsarism,” to which attention was drawn with a series of commemorative events.
The “historical” topics are widely covered in the pages of local periodicals. Bookshops can be found in abundance “works”, including Chairman of the Committee on Safety and natsoborone Seimas A. Anushauskasa telling about the “crimes of the Soviet totalitarian regime,” “heroic resistance to Soviet occupation Lithuanians.” And recently appeared on the shelves, “novelty” – published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs with the assistance of HR in the Lithuanian language book by Snyder under the eloquent title “Blood of the earth: Europe between Hitler and Stalin.” However, in fairness, it should be noted that local residents are in high demand product is not in use.
Distorted view of history and cultivate local school textbooks. In these centuries of Russian history, to determine the local Russian-language expert, presented an extremely sketchy with emphasis on Ivan the Terrible, Peter I , Lenin and the “bloody Stalin.” In school history course consciously formed unattractive image of Russia, which is to be feared.
In Estonia there are about 100 thousand “aliens” whose legal status is a special “invention” of the Estonian authorities in order to bring this category of people from the application of international conventions including the Convention on the Status of Stateless Persons and 1954 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness of 1961 g, as well as avoid the inclusion of this population in the official statistical reports on the number of LBG. Inflated language requirements, the lack of automatic citizenship to children “aliens”, the rate of the Estonian authorities on the assimilation of our compatriots have led to a drop in the rate of naturalization. In 2010, citizens of Estonia received a total of 1184 people. (2005 – 7 th.).
Today there is no reason to believe that in the foreseeable future, the Estonian leadership will be ready to take concrete measures to overcome the situation, although the relevant international organizations, local communities and even the deputies of the Estonian Parliament proposed for the steps such as the automatic granting of citizenship to children “seropasportnikov ‘naturalization in a simplified manner born on the territory of the ESSR / Estonian persons who are not currently any nationality, full or partial cancellation of the language requirements for the granting of citizenship to all persons of retirement age, not just those born before January 1, 1930, as required under the current.
Another systemic problem in Estonia is the practical failure of the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities. This document was ratified in Estonia November 21, 1996 with the proviso that a minority can be considered only citizens of Estonia. On this basis, a long time, the authorities refused to accept an application from the municipal authorities of places of compact residence of the Russian minority in these areas giving the Russian language official status, citing its failure to link the ratification law. The share of “non-citizens” in places of compact residence of his in the country far exceeds the required 50%, but the situation has not changed.
Moreover, these municipalities north-east, where the main part of our compatriots who have adapted to the current situation (unofficial record keeping is conducted in Russian, including a discussion and vote on various issues, and the final documents and records are made in the official language “hindsight” ) and does not intend to again raise this issue before the government, knowing his “principled stand” on the issue.
Another pressing issue is taken by the Estonian government rate for the total elimination of education in RussianWhile at the high school stage. Despite the fact that the current Estonian law (Law “On Basic Schools and Upper Secondary Schools”) provides an opportunity to study not only in Estonian, but also in other languages, the local Ministry of Education and Science considers itself free from strict compliance with law. Unveiled a ten-year development plan of the education system in 2011-2020. does not provide instruction in public schools in any language other than Estonian. For many years in professional schools is not carried out teacher training for schools with Russian language of instruction. The former and present ministers of education and J. Lucas, T. Aaviksoo stated that the said law-written rule about the possibility of having schools with non-Estonian language of instruction is other than for which they will never go than demonstrated not only the legal nihilism of the Estonian leadership, but also contempt for their own legislation. With the current academic year 60% of subjects in all public schools be taught in Estonian, which certainly hit on the quality of education primarily Russian-speaking students.
Saving after the parliamentary elections in March former alignment of forces on the domestic political landscape does not give grounds to expect in the foreseeable future positive changes in the rights-based sector. In this connection it is worth noting the view of defenders of Tallinn Information Centre for Human Rights that the Estonian authorities at all skillfully “play” on this field, and even the few identified over the past few years, cases of “untwisted” by the Center are treated by the European Court of Human Rights as a rule not in favor of plaintiffs for lack of overt signs of restriction of their rights.
Estonia continues to see an increase of neo-Nazi manifestations. In August of this yearsupported Minborony again held the annual so-called military-sports game, “Erna-2011” is actually glorifying abverovskoy commando action in the rear of the Red Army in August 1941, Estonia has held public meetings have become traditional legionaries “Waffen SS”, from the historical center Tallinn has been removed “Bronze Soldier” (monument to the Liberator Soldier in Tallinn from Nazi invaders.)
On the night of 25 to 26 May this year Georgian police dispersed a group of protesters outside parliament citizens of Georgia. One of the demonstrators killed dozens, including women, severely beaten. Massacre were not only the demonstrators but also journalists. All this was yet another clear proof of the critical situation of human rights in Georgia. Tbilisi’s actions are yet another flagrant violation of the rights to peaceful assembly and to freedom of expression.Appropriate stringent guidelines were addressed to the Georgian authorities in January of this year in the first phase of the passage of goods Universal Periodic Review procedure under the UN Council on Human Rights.
“Amnesty International” in August issued a report critical of Tbilisi for the forced relocation of internally displaced persons (IDPs) in temporary shelters. The report states that at the present time as a result of armed conflicts in the 1990s. and in 2008 about 6 percent. of Georgia’s population (247 thousand.) are IDPs. Most of them are over 20 years do not have the opportunity to exercise their right of return does not have permanent housing, have great difficulty in finding and accessing health services, social and economically protected.
Against the background of the new wave of evictions, which began in July of this year, human rights activists say that the policy of Tbilisi leads to deterioration of the situation of IDPs and contrary to international legal obligations of Georgia. In particular, there is provided the right of IDPs to the preliminary information on the eviction, return to their native residence, receiving · compensation, provision of adequate new housing. The Georgian government also has not taken measures to adapt the social and economic support of the victims, moving people in isolated, underdeveloped areas of the country with limited opportunities for employment.
It is noted that only for the period from June 2010 to January of this year More than 1,000 people have been moved from Tbilisi to distant parts of the country where there is no basic infrastructure and living conditions are extremely difficult.
Although in 2005 the Georgian parliament ratified the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities, Tbilisi made a number of significant reservations, specifying its implementation. In particular, it was stressed that to ensure full implementation of the Convention can not be long until it is restored territorial integrity of Georgia. With regard to support and develop minority languages Parliament noted that the state is obliged to provide national minorities to learn the state language, but did not recognize the State’s obligation to support minority languages and promote their development. At present, the Georgian Parliament continues to delay ratification of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, which is strongly recommends that the Council of Europe within a legal framework that meets European standards of human rights.
In the draft resolution of the Committee of Ministers (CECM) for the implementation of Georgia’s Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities (FCNM) for 2010 noted that the main problem facing the authorities is to ensure the linguistic rights of national minorities. Although the Georgian government and are making efforts to ensure the training of minorities Georgian language, however, these efforts clearly are not adequate to the existing needs. Stated the limited participation of national minorities in cultural, social, economic, social and political spheres. Expressed concern that a particular impact on ethnic minorities has a growing interfaith tensions in Georgia.
In the concluding observations of the UN Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD) on reports of Georgia on the human rights situation in the country in August indicates the absence of legislation to protect minorities. It is noted that the Criminal Code does not contain anti-racist norms. Racism is not considered an aggravating factor in crimes. In these circumstances, experts have linked a small number of court cases on racial discrimination.Concerns have caused cases of bias and the prevalence of negative stereotypes about ethnic and religious minorities in the media, public statements of politicians and school books. In addition, the experts pointed out that after the 2008 conflict, some minorities openly positioned as “enemies.” Expressed concern about reports of arbitrary arrests and mistreatment of security services to foreigners.
It was noted poor knowledge of Georgian language among minorities, which is an obstacle to their full integration into society, get an adequate education, employment and representation in state institutions. Ignorance of the Georgian language is also named as the cause of numerous cases of arbitrary detention by police. In the film has gone the Georgians and the lack of detailed statistical information on many social groups, including for minorities, IDPs and refugees. It was noted that a large number of children not registered at birth.
Several passages in the text is devoted to discrimination against Azerbaijanis and Armenians, Gypsies harassment, obstacles to the repatriation of Meskhetian Turks to the plight of IDPs and refugees over the years found themselves without the support of integration programs.
The report of the Working Group of the UN Council on Human Rights on Arbitrary Detention on the visit to Georgia (final version scheduled for release to the next session of the HRC in March 2012) presents the findings of the mercy of the judiciary from the executive in this country.Special working group was struck by the situation in the prison system, a situation where the opportunity to be released is determined solely by the presence of the prisoner money and connections. It is noted that there is almost total impunity reigns of law enforcement officers.
The Georgian authorities have deliberately carried out a discriminatory policy against Azerbaijanis – the most numerous national minority in the country. The total number of ethnic Azerbaijanis in Georgia – nearly 300 million people (about 7% of the population).
In the region of Kvemo Kartli steadily declining in the Azerbaijani sector of the secondary schools and for admission to public service in preference to persons of Georgian nationality.There also were incidents that led to the aggravation of interethnic relations – in December 2004 and March 2006
In places of compact residence of Azerbaijanis be tailored Georgian enclaves.
Infringement of the rights of ethnic Azerbaijanis turned the adoption by Parliament of Georgia Law “On Cultural Heritage”, provides for levy of additional tax on residents of the historical part of Tbilisi. This is where the focus of the Azerbaijani population, most of whom belong to low-income groups. Representatives of the Azeri community say is an attempt to extrude from the Azerbaijani capital of the use of economic levers.
One of the most recent anti-Azerbaijani provocations, had social resonance, can be considered as placed on the official site of Georgia’s state registry card that Azerbaijani villages were assigned to the Georgian name. This refers to the five villages of Marneuli district and 12 villages in Tsalka district, they are part of the province of Kvemo-Kartli (Azeri name – Borchali).Starting in the 90s. the last century has been renamed 38 localities, and this process continues.Such actions by the Georgian authorities undoubtedly hurt the national feelings of the local population and do not contribute to the growth of their authority. As a result – massive resettlement of Azerbaijanis to acquire contiguous Azerbaijan.
In 1944 he was made the mass deportation of the Meskhetian Turks (about 90 thousand people.) From Georgia to Central Asia. In the speech to the Council of Europe in 1999, Georgia has committed over two years to adopt a law on the repatriation of Meskhetian Turks to grant them citizenship of Georgia, and to ensure their return in the next 10 years (ie until the end of this year). Enacted in Georgia in 2008, a law is declarative in nature and does not provide real incentives and guarantees for returnees. The return process is being heralded a number of strict limitations and burdensome bureaucratic conditions. In fact, repatriation has not carried out. This issue is regularly raised in the OSCE framework, including through its High Commissioner on National Minorities Knut Vollebaek. In conclusion, the Advisory Committee on the Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities in 2008, there has been many problems in repatriation, from requirements relating to the filing of petitions and to financial problems in the implementation of integration programs Turks. The report of the European Commission to Georgia in 2010, Georgia’s recommended to take urgent measures for the integration of the Meskhetian population, which should affect both the Meskhetian Turks and the local Georgian population, still hostile to the Meskhetian particularly in areas of the historic residence of Turks -mesehtintsev.
July 26, 2010 in Georgia, was arrested the chairman of the International Society of Meskhetian Turks “Vatan” SM Barbakadze. As far as the circumstances of the case, this arrest is devoid of legal basis and is provocative in order to prevent the mass return of Meskhetian Turks to Georgia. In connection with the arrest of SM Barbakadze RS Barbakadze (son of the detainee) sent appeals to the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights Pillay and Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights Thomas Hammarberg. In January 2011, SM Barbakadze was sentenced to 11 years in prison and pay a large fine. The state of health of the sick person in custody elderly deteriorated significantly. During his fate continues to closely monitor international human rights institutions and NGOs.
At present, according to official data, the Armenian community of Georgia consists of 246 thousand people. Due to the high emigration of Armenians from Georgia to Russia, Greece and other European countries, which is primarily due to severe socio-economic situation and unemployment in the country (about 35% of the population of Georgia), in the early 90s. the last century, the country has left much of the Armenian intellectuals and successful entrepreneurs.
In accordance with the Georgian government has entered into force on the system of “bilingual education”, according to which Armenian students in their native language all subjects are taught only in elementary school, and then subjects such as chemistry, physics, mathematics, etc. Students study in Georgian, Armenian history – the Armenian language.
Armenian-populated region of Samtskhe-Javakheti (in Armenian Javakheti) is in dire socio-economic status. About 40% of the population are forced to travel in the winter to work in Russia (about 20 thousand of them have Russian citizenship). For administrative positions in local government appointed by the predominantly ethnic Georgians. In January 2009, there was observed a sharp aggravation of the situation in connection with the Georgian authorities arrest on charges of spying and separatist activities director of the Armenian Youth Center “Akhaltsikhe” Gagik Minasyan, and president of the charitable organization “Charles Aznavour” S. Hakobjanyan. This action provoked a unanimous condemnation of the Armenian NGOs in Georgia and in Armenia (including at the parliamentary level.) In June 2009, Georgian border guards denied entry to the deputy of the National Assembly of Armenia, Chairman of the Patriotic Association “Dzhavakh” C. Torossian. On this occasion, the Armenian Foreign Ministry spokesman said the protest in Tbilisi.
Visiting Georgia on private business, Russians, first of all ethnic Georgians who become the objects of provocation and the arbitrariness of the Georgian special services. Fabricated all sorts of spy scandals, becoming more and more implausible.
They worked out the corresponding scheme: withdrawal of a passport, “an invitation for a conversation” in which a Russian citizen is invited to “cooperation”, while the recalcitrant “find” weapons, drugs or counterfeit money. On trumped-so “for” imprisoned Doctor of Law, a member of the Journalists Union of Russia, Vladimir Vakhania and a retired lieutenant colonel of the Russian army PG Bliadze.
Doctor of Jurisprudence V. Vakhania long worked in the Russian prosecutor’s office, is a member of the Union of Journalists of the Russian Federation, permanently residing in Moscow.In 2008 he also received Georgian citizenship.
In the summer of 2008 Vladimir Vakhania with his wife and three children arrived on a private visit to his homeland in Zugdidi. When I try to fly to Moscow with his family in October 2008, Vladimir Vakhania was removed from the flight. Without explanation, he had seized documents from him demanding the recognition of spying for Russia.
March 11, 2009 accused some journalist Vladimir Vakhania the threats against her, and March 15 in Zugdidi his house was searched, during which “discovered” gun with ammunition and grenades. In late March of that year, Vladimir Vakhania arrested on apparently trumped-up charges “unlawful interference with reporters in his professional activities” (st.154 Georgian Criminal Code) and “unlawful acquisition, possession, or sale of firearms” (CC st.236 of Georgia). September 11, 2009 the district court sentenced him to g.Zugdidi 4 years’ imprisonment.
According to the statements of relatives, currently Vladimir Vakhania very ill, but he denied skilled care, do not give permission to conduct the medical examination. It is argued that prison doctors deliberately injected his drugs, contributing to health.
In May 2009, came to Georgia to deal with family problems retired Russian colonel PG Bliadze.Already at the border crossing the Georgian special services offered to him to declare a videotape that he is an “agent of Moscow” and involved in organizing the so-called mutiny at a military base in Mukhrovani. A month later he was arrested, throwing, as in the case of VV Vakhania weapon (pistol). During the investigation, PG Bliadze repeatedly promised, including a court-appointed lawyer, the immediate release in exchange for videopriznanie in “cooperation with the Russian special services and participation in the anti-Georgian activity.”
In November 2009, the Tbilisi City Court found PG Bliadze “guilty of unlawful purchase and possession of firearms” and sentenced to five years imprisonment.
The proceedings from the outset formally passed. Petitions and protests by the defense were rejected without explanation. As witnesses were invited only members of Georgian Interior Ministry who participated in the arrest of PG Bliadze.
A similar scheme of the Georgian special services tried to implement in respect of a Russian citizen and former soldier YM Kenkadze (living in Krasnodar Territory, arrived in Georgia in late September 2009 to meet with the mother).
Already when entering the country, he felt more attention to themselves – border guard officer carefully recorded his address and contact phone numbers in Georgia.