Is Turkmenistan Hiding Its Laws?


‘Israel can live with Iranian nuclear bomb’

suspected uranium-enrichment facility near Qom

‘Israel can live with Iranian nuclear bomb’


Space Agency head: Public discourse on Iran is misinformed, damaging; “One nuclear bomb won’t destroy a state, not even a neighborhood.”

Israel can live with an Iranian nuclear bomb, head of the Israeli Space Agency Professor Yitzhak Ben Yisrael said on Wednesday in an interview with Globes.

Speaking a day after the release of an IAEA report detailing Iran’s efforts at weapons development, Ben Yisrael explained, “One nuclear bomb won’t destroy a state, not even a neighborhood in Tel Aviv. An atomic bomb like the one the Iranians want to build has a radius of 500 meters of death and destruction, and 1,000 meters of lighter damage.”

Saying that the public isn’t familiar with the the actual implications of a nuclear bomb, Ben Yisrael contended that “It isn’t sexy to speak about it. It’s sexier to ask when we are going to attack Iran and from what direction.”

According to the agency head, public discourse on Iran’s nuclear program may be damaging to Israel.

“The public can’t be experts on bombs or military capabilities. They are asking too many questions about whether or not we can attack Iran militarily, if it’s right to attack Iran, and at what hour to attack. These questions are asked of the public although they don’t have the necessary information,” Ben Yisrael explained.

“In order to have such a discussion [with the public], we’d need to release classified information, capabilities and resources. So this type of discussion doesn’t have any value.”

Kyrgyzstan sets the example. The next area of ​​ethnic conflict – Tajikistan?

Kyrgyzstan sets the example. The next area of ​​ethnic conflict – Tajikistan?

The Russian press has fixated on the suffering of the Russian-speaking population in the Central Asian Independent States, with an astounding indifference to the fate of other non-titular peoples living in the newly formed states. Even frank genocide of the Uzbek population, conducted in southern Kyrgyzstan with a truly German-fascist thoroughness, practically organized at the state level, combined with medieval brutality, spawned in the Russian media is only one question: is not touched, whether the ethnic conflict Russian-speaking community?

The paradox of history is that the Russian-speaking population, almost without exception associated with the initial state, industrial and military affairs, which has a theoretical possibility at any time to escape to their historical homeland, is in fairly good position. From it does not require full integration with the titular nation, actively using the Russian officials as a tool there where technical knowledge or precise performance of public functions (from the construction of hydropower stations and collect taxes, to protect prisoners and stores of ammunition).

As for the non-titular nationalities of other, their situation in some Central Asian states from year to year becomes more and more unbearable, and the politics of becoming “great mikroimpery” makes them not even citizens of the second and third grade. Particularly difficult daily life is non-titular nation where its “home state” begins an unspoken rivalry for influence in the region with neighboring countries.

On the causes of ethnic conflict in Kyrgyzstan has already written a lot. I note only that the Uzbek population in the southern countries to fully take advantage of the transition to market relations. Leaving behind the “true Kirghiz” struggle for power, the administrative seat, police and military career, it took hold trade, crafts and agriculture. As a result, its prosperity is not only jealous of the Kirghiz, Uzbeks and many other states of Central Asia.

But sooner or later, taking the administrative power, emaciated officials in support of the lumpen-proletariat “true Kirghiz”, must have been to require its 100% share of the economic pie. So Osh and Jalal-Abad slaughterhouse – this is another attempt by the combined efforts of the Kyrgyz criminals and administrative resources (army, police, secret services) in one fell swoop solve the “problem of the Uzbek” and feed the electorate lumpen. The classic example – anti-Jewish pogroms in Germany at the time Hitler came to power.

Tragically Kyrgyz nationalist politics in the second “Kristallnacht” did not work. Uzbek community has proven far more organized than in the brain seemed new Nazis. She did not willingly wear a bandage to the “Star of David” as did the German Jews. Moreover, according to some reports, the neighboring Uzbek and Kyrgyz Mahalla quickly found a common ground between not only hid the neighbors, but also gave a joint rebuff murderous robbers, “volunteers”, and even the police and military units, under the guise of armored vehicles and guns started to burn out home crowd and Kyrgyz Uzbeks over the boundary line. For what reason, by the way, the modern Kyrgyz fascists have already begun to bring them to justice “for inciting ethnic hatred.” By the logic of Kyrgyz nationalists – the only correct behavior of minorities – to voluntarily expose his throat to the knife of the titular nation.

In neighboring Tajikistan, today a similar situation is brewing. Came to power Kulyab tip (Dangara group), in the chapter with a blunt nationalist and admirer of Hitler, “Aryan chief of the world,” President Emomali Rahmon theft and corruption has ruined the once flourishing country so that the Tajik guest workers are now in other countries, the main object of pity, NGOs and compassionate elderly women . As a result, advisers Rahmon did not find anything better as blame all their troubles Russia and neighboring Uzbekistan.

Well, since the Russian in Tajikistan almost gone, then the entire charge of hate getting to the unlimited power of corrupt officials and fleeced them Tajik lumpen turned on for many centuries, living in this territory Uzbeks.

It is noteworthy that the Tajik Uzbeks from the first days of independence formed their civic identity as citizens of the Republic of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and no. Only 7% of the representatives of this ethnic group intend to migrate outside the country. Uzbeks feel themselves masters of the tradition embodied in their areas of settlement and accordingly perceive Tajikistan as “their” state. Otherwise have developed priorities Tajiks, as soon as they were the titular nation in a sovereign state. For purely ethnic reasons to hate the Uzbeks was a sense of national inferiority Tajiks caused by civil war and devastation, fear of disintegrating in front of the emerging ethnic Turkic ethno-political community, etc.

Exacerbated the situation and the fact that unlike most of the citizens of Tajikistan, after a bloody civil war that has all the same strong focus on ethnic peace, the authorities of the country completely different plans. Conducted their administrative and enforcement ethnic consolidation of certain economic, professional, and social spheres in Tajikistan promotes the progression of multiple ethnic plane stress associated with the redistribution of power, economic reforms and the division of state property.

As a result, in recent years in some parts of the country’s tensions between Uzbeks and Tajiks in particular has increased. Economic reasons it was a sharp increase in the Uzbek economic elite in the years of independence, competition for control over resources, which is most acute in export-oriented industries where formed large financial and industrial groups in the ethnic and clan-based. For geopolitical reasons, the growing tensions include territorial issues, weakness and confusion of the Tajik-Uzbek border, the presence of regions with compact Uzbek population.

Mass discrimination of the Uzbek-speaking part of the local population is increasing as the deployment at the state level anti-Uzbek campaign. Thus, in the framework of the October 5, 2009 Law “On State Language” in virtually all government bodies, as well as many private institutions, outsourcing is only in the Tajik language. At the same time the heads of ministries and departments, categorically forbid his staff from among the Uzbeks to talk during working hours in their native language. In respect of “violators” subject to the measures of administrative punishment, up to the early termination of the employment contract without paying compensation.

Among mid-level managers has become fashionable to openly demonstrate their extreme nationalist views. For example, even in the beginning of humane health care authorities now openly threatened with immediate dismissal of anyone who dares to use the Uzbek language in communication with both colleagues and patients. In the past two years been dismissed from their jobs, most Uzbeks, who occupied leadership positions (department heads, chief surgeons, therapists, etc.). Others, in order to keep their jobs and at least some stable income, have to regularly present their management cash compensation, the amount of which in a number of institutions is several times the monthly salary (about 180 Somoni – 40.5 dollars).

A similar personnel policies conducted in SUE “Rohee groan Tojikiston” (“Tajik Railways”) and other agencies, before the traditional ones of ethnic tolerance in the workplace.

With each passing day increases the pressure on the Uzbek-speaking part of the population through periodic arrests under the guise of combating religious extremism and terrorism, as well as fraudulent charges of espionage, economic and other crimes. Most of the detained Uzbeks illegally contained in the ITT local police department and released to freedom only after giving the “Taxed” the police for making a positive decision on fabricated materials.

Well-documented part of the Tajik militants in Osh events, the facts support the Tajik security forces combat training units of the “true Kirghiz ‘on Tajik territory and supplying them with arms and ammunition also speak volumes.

Despite the desperate screams, raised in the pro-government Tajik press, about the supposedly non-participation of that state to the Osh events, there is a “dress rehearsal” for the future of genocide Uzbeks in Tajikistan. Read the Tajik sites, listen to the informal speech “Aryan Leaders” and bloodthirstiness amazed by the level of Tajik respondents in relation to ethnic Uzbeks.

The world press has long rumored about the explosive situation in Tajikistan. In contrast to Kyrgyzstan, where an attempt was made to preserve at least superficially democratic gloss to ethnic relations in Tajikistan since independence was a “scientific training” for the impending slaughter. On the monuments in the city center map with boundaries broken “Great Tajikistan,” President Emomali Rahmon officially declared Führer of all Aryans of the world, Uzbeks, and “other Turks” openly declared racially inferior nation. Therefore, the impending massacre in Tajikistan, if not nationalistic fervor to cool the Tajik leadership, can lead to much more severe consequences than it was in the south. About 2 million ethnic Uzbeks or persons actually belonging to this ethnic group in Tajikistan, differ by ethnic Uzbeks in Kyrgyzstan, above all, that already have experience of conducting full-scale hostilities in the Civil War.

Anti-Uzbek policy pursued today in Dushanbe, will flood the blood not only of Tajikistan. Given the millions of Tajik guest workers, scattered throughout the CIS, the fire of ethnic conflict will spread to the entire post-Soviet space. Is it worth “Aryan birthright” Kulyab mafia new human life and suffering? … Sergei Shepherds (email)


Rahmon Reminisces About His Days in Samarkand with Karimov

Rahmon Reminisces About His Days in Samarkand with Karimov



One would think that all Central Asian presidents would know better than to be frank and open around a group of journalists. Either Emomali Rahmon forgot this, was drunk, or meant for his short diatribe against Islom Karimov the other day to make it out to the public.

First the Russian:

«К Каримову я очень хорошо раньше относился… Мы называли его «отамиз» («наш отец» по-узбекски. — Ред.), но потом мы многое узнали. Этот человек борется против всего таджикского… не хочет развития нашей страны, закрывает дороги, отключает в холодную зиму нам электричество», — делился воспоминаниями Эмомали Рахмон. И продолжал: «Однажды мы были с ним в Самарканде, академик Мухаммаджон Шукуров не даст соврать, он был с нами. Я спросил одного человека, стоявшего рядом: «Кто ты по нации?» Он смотрит на Каримова, вижу, боится его и отвечает: «Я самаркандский». Вот в таком положении там сегодня таджики». …

Г-н Рахмон продолжал: «Я много раз с ним (Каримовым. — Ред.) спорил, два раза даже подрался (Рахмон употребил другое слово, которое по соображениям политкорректности мы не приводим. — Ред.), один раз нас Назарбаев разнял, второй раз Кучма… И я сказал ему: «Самарканд и Бухару мы все равно возьмем!»

…and my rough translation:

“I once thought very well of Karimov… We called him ‘otamiz’ (‘our father’ in Uzbek — ed.), but we have discovered much about him. This man fights against all Tajiks… he doesn’t want our country to develop, closes roads, shuts off our electricity in the cold of winter” reminisced Emomali Rahmon. And he continued, “One time we were with him in Samarkand — the academic Muhammadjon Shukuruov can confirm this — he was with us. I asked one person who was nearby, ‘What is your nationality?’ He looked at Karimov, I can see that he is afraid, and he answers, ‘I am Samarkandi.’ That is the situation for Tajiks there today.” …

Mr. Rahmon continued, “I argued with him (Karimov — ed.) many times, two times I even fought (Rahmon used another word, which for the sake of political correctness we do not provide — ed.) with him, the first time Nazarbaev separated us, the second time Kuchma… And I said to him, ‘We will take Samarkand and Bukhara!’”

If only all the Central Asian presidents would loosen up and share their feelings…

Tajikistan: Where the Swastika Is Welcome


Tajikistan: Where the Swastika Is Welcome

By Gulnoza SaidazimovaLike other post-Soviet countries, Tajikistan has taken a fresh look its history following independence in 1991. The result is a state campaign to promote the notion that the Tajiks as a Aryan nation – and the widespread use of the swastika.

The swastika, Tajik-style
(RFE/RL)Prague, 16 December 2005 (RFE/RL) — The swastika may be known the world over as the symbol of Nazi Germany and it may be banned in some states for that reason, but in Tajikistan it appears on placards, banners, and billboards with the blessing of the state.

For officials in Dushanbe, the swastika is above all a symbol of national identity. Most Tajik historians now maintain that Tajiks are of Aryan origin, and argue that Aryan or Indo-European civilization must therefore be studied and promoted. It is an argument now accepted by the state. Indeed, the revival of Aryan culture is now official policy of Dushanbe: 2006 will be celebrated in Tajikistan as the year of Aryan civilization.

The authorities say the swastika’s now widespread adoption in Tajikistan has nothing to do with Nazism and fascism. “Throughout history, interpretations of this symbol have changed,” notes Abduhakim Sharipov, head of a department in the Soghd regional administration. He, like other officials, emphasizes the swastika is a symbol of Aryan culture that has existed for many centuries. “We all know that fascism used this symbol for its purposes. This symbol therefore carries negative connotations for many…[but] we should not limit ourselves to only one interpretation.”

When the swastika first appeared, in India, it was as a sign of eternity and eternal motion. The newer, positive connotations that the Tajik authorities want the swastika to gain were outlined two years ago by President Imomali Rakhmonov when he declared 2006 the year of Aryan culture: the aim of the year is, he said, to “study and popularize Aryan contributions to the history of the world civilization; to raise a new generation [of Tajiks] with the spirit of national self-determination; and to develop deeper ties with other ethnicities and cultures.”

Linguistically, the Tajiks are closely tied to the Persians, who since ancient times have used the term Aryan to describe themselves and their language.

The Tajik historian and ethnographer Usto Jahonov supports both the state’s desire to raise awareness of Tajikistan’s Aryan heritage and the use of the swastika. Using an argument employed by Tajik officials in numerous speeches, Jahonov contends that it is an inherent part of Aryan culture and a key to building national identity. A stronger national identity is itself “needed now because we live among [non-Aryan,] Turkic nations” that are, he says, rewriting “their history by claiming that they emerged in this area [Central Asia]. We should therefore go back to Aryan history, demonstrate and prove to others where our place is. Each nation should know its place.”

An Ancient Symbol In The Shadow Of A Modern Taboo

But it is hard to rid the swastika of its negative associations. For many people in the West, the swastika is a taboo, synonymous as it is with Nazism, fascism, and white supremacy in general. Post-war Germany outlawed the swastika and other Nazi symbols for all but scholarly purposes.

Continued sensitivities were highlighted earlier this year when Britain’s Prince Harry was criticized for wearing a Nazi swastika armband and a Nazi uniform to a fancy-dress party. The incident led to calls from German politicians for a ban on all Nazi symbols across the European Union, which was then followed by a debate in the European Commission in Brussels.

For similar reasons, the new prominence of the swastika is touching on sensitivities in Tajikistan, recently prompting a group of Tajik World War II veterans to write a letter to Rakhmonov asking him to end the use of the swastika.

The Tajik president has so far not responded.

“I am a veteran of World War II,” says one Tajik former member of the Soviet army. “We veterans demand that this fascist cross, the swastika, be removed from placards. We fought against the Nazis, who had the swastika. Why should we propagate it now?”

The use of the swastika by skinheads has made the symbol even more controversial in recent years.

Due to high levels of unemployment and poverty, many Tajiks have had to work as illegal migrant laborers abroad, overwhelmingly in Russia. Many have been subjected to harassment and intimidation. Several have been killed by racist groups in recent years.

The most prominent case was the murder, in February 2004, of a 9-year-old Tajik girl in St. Petersburg by a group of teenagers armed with chains, metal rods and knives. Khursheda Sultanova’s father and her 11-year-old cousin were also savagely beaten.

This and other cases have provoked public outrage in Tajik society.

For one woman interviewed, both objections to the swastika originate close to home. “My grandfather died in a battle against Nazi Germany,” she told RFE/RL, and “last year, my neighbor’s son was killed by a group of skinheads in Russia.”

“I am amazed to see [the swastika]. Why does our government recover and propagate the [hooked] cross now?”

This Tajik woman says she welcomes a rediscovery of the Tajik nation’s history. But, she argues, historians should not forget the nation’s recent past just to revive its ancient heritage.

(RFE/RL’s Uzbek Service correspondent in Tajikistan, Alisher Akhmedov, contributed to this report.)

Copyright (c) 2005 RFE/RL, Inc.

Dangerous Ideas Dominate Tajik Thinking–the First “Aryans”

Dangerous chimera “Aryan”: an alliance of Persian

News Newsland: Dangerous chimerasHeld last month in Tehran summit to bring together the presidents of Afghanistan, Iran and Tajikistan, has revived interest in the idea of creating a “Union of Iranian (Persian) countries.” This project with varying degrees of intensity has been discussed for more than five years. And as perhaps the chief motive for the education of the future alliance considers not only the overall economic and political interests of many ethnic and cultural proximity of Afghan, Iranian and Tajik peoples. 

In Tajikistan, demonstrating, perhaps, the most active interest in the “Union of Iranian”, this closeness to erect some kind of ancient “Aryan civilization”, which allegedly supports common ancestors were just Iranians, Tajiks, most of the peoples of Afghanistan and other Indo-Iranian groups. You could even say that the “Aryan” has become an important part of Tajikistan’s state ideology, has a strong influence on both the domestic, primarily ethnic, situation, and on relations with neighboring Turkic-speaking countries in the first place – with Uzbekistan.

In Tashkent the “Aryan” ideologemes Dushanbe apprehended, to say the least, suspicious.Especially the idea that the Tajiks, as descendants of the Aryans, are “truly indigenous” population of the region (often treated as a lost “a great Tajikistan”) while supposedly Turkic peoples are descended from the “outsiders” nomadic “barbarians.” The Uzbek side was followed by a return volley of historical research, designed to refute the “Aryan birthright” of the Tajiks.Sharp tone controversy among historians until the end in sight. Here, however, is not the place to analyze the scientific validity of a position, moreover, that with that, and on the other hand lack of historical myths. The main point is that, in the subordination of the historical science of the state ideology in both countries, scholars debate not the best influence on interstate and international relations. And it is in a region where the debate in the “search for historical truth” at any moment can turn into a terrible massacre.

The fruit of Stalin’s disengagement

The roots of the current “historic debate” grow more from the Soviet era, more of the so-called national-state demarcation in Central Asia. The fact is that in the years 1920-1930 a clear national-ethnic identity in Gdańsk population was not yet – the majority identified themselves primarily as “Muslims.” But terms such as, for example, “Uzbek” and “Tajik”, until the disengagement were perceived more as a complement to the formula “and that, and another,” but not in contrasting terms – “or Uzbek, Tajik or”. Especially in the region is home to a large number of so-called “Sart”, with meanings for local people and local researchers were very vague: a “Sarts” in different contexts could be implied as the current Tajiks, Uzbeks and present.

After formation in 1924, the Tajik Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as part of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (in 1929, Tajikistan became a union republic) had to abolish the term “Sart” and a clear distinction between the term “Tajik” and “Uzbek.” But because of the mixed type “mezhuemyh” territories was impossible to establish a clear ethnic boundaries of the new administrative units. Yes, and reluctant to do this, Soviet authorities did not – affected adherence to bureaucratic arbitrariness, although it may, Stalin, and there was a certain idea – namely, to prevent the hypothetical consolidation of the “natives” in anti-Soviet basis, with his “bomb” of ethnic and territorial conflicts . “Bombs” are “ticking” is still threatening to explode at any moment.

Even in Soviet times, Tajik political and intellectual elite, has achieved with great difficulty creating your own republic within the USSR, feel deprived. Indeed, during the disengagement most populous and fertile land, as well as the cities with very large Tajik population, as Bukhara and Samarkand, went to Uzbekistan. Among a large part of the Tajik intelligentsia has always dominated the belief that in Uzbekistan, for decades a policy of Turkization there the Tajiks and Tajik historical and cultural heritage rather than ignored or persecuted as “assigned a” Uzbeks.

When the Soviet discussions on these topics, to put it mildly, not encouraged, and on research in the field of so-called “Aryan” and does it impose strict taboo. Only in a gentle, disguised “scientific” form of various “historical” claims and claims taken to a page dissertations and other publications on historical issues.

Among the, relatively speaking, the forerunner of the modern “Aryan ideology” in Tajikistan, we must first of all, to name a famous Tajik historian and politician, academician of the USSR Bobojon Gafurov (1908-1977), who was from 1946 to 1956 first secretary of the Communist Party of Tajikistan, and then headed the Institute of Oriental Studies, USSR Academy of Sciences. It is in his work, as noted by opponents of the current Tajik “Aryan” in the first place, Uzbek, appeared the idea that the ancestors of all the Turkic peoples of Central Asia are the newcomers, while Tajiks are the only native indigenous people of the region.

“Historic” Battle of “birthright”

After the collapse of the Soviet Union collapse of communist ideology and the lack of developed democratic institutions have made ethnic nationalism is almost the only possible political agenda relatively educated elites “titular” nationalities of the former Soviet republics. These elites were able to mobilize the masses to achieve political power (or save) and form an independent state only because of the “national idea” that has, however, the ideological roots in the Soviet social science. It is known, it is a “nation” is considered as the basis for the legitimation of the state, the creation of viable economic and socio-cultural institutions.

Within the state building new independent state has always used the story as one of the main ideological tools. Among the most notable examples of this – modern Tajikistan and Uzbekistan – the most historically and culturally related to closer territories in Central Asia, characterized by similar features of the state and nation building. The formation of national states is just there led to the formation of hypertrophic nationalist ideologies, which are quite “symmetric” contradict and oppose each other.

Fixing the appearance of the first representatives of a particular ethnic group in a given geographical area – the most important part of history “debate” born of the confrontation between ideologies. In the “version”, voiced in the works of Tajik academics and professors Masov R., N. Negmatova, A. Tursunzoda, W. Gaffarova, N. Hatamova, C. Aini and others, we have the thesis of Tajiks – direct descendants of the Aryan civilization, which existed in the so-called Ariana about 8,000 years ago. (Even in Turkmenistan under Turkmenbashi local historians were able to include the time origins of their civilization only 6,000 years old).

In this case, for example, in the writings of H. Negmatova “Tajik phenomenon: Theory and History,” and R. Masov “Tajiks: The Story of a classified” top secret “as the descendants of the Aryan Tajiks – the founders of the great culture – directly against” nomadic barbarians, the Turks’ , the direct descendants of whom allegedly are Uzbeks, “which took the Tajiks, not only territory but also the historical and cultural heritage.” Director, Institute of History of the Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan Masov Rahim, however, speaks of the Uzbeks as a “conglomerate of Turko-Mongol tribes and indigenous agricultural oases.” However, Uzbek historians immediately accused Masov, in particular, is that it comes from the anthropological distinction between Aryans (Europoids) and Turks (partially Mongoloid), pointing to the “lower” culture of the Turks than the Aryans, that is, comes to the racist understanding of culture and its division into “higher” and “inferior.”

However, the Tajik historians are fairly “balanced” answer to all these charges. They, in turn, accused the Uzbek “pan-Turkists” to empower the Tajiks offensive epithets – “backward”, “ignorant,” “savages,” to deny the very existence of the Tajik people (some Tajiks, Uzbek authors define as “the Turk iranizirovannuyu fraction” and “fictitious nation “).

However, the key in all of these “pan-Turkic-Aryan” disassembly is still its purely applied side – namely, actively used by the Tajik historians since the early 1990s, the thesis of “historical” or “large” Tajikistan. This “historical Tajikistan”, according to some authors Tajik existed, at least, already 2500 years ago and was created by another Persian Achaemenids. He allegedly covered the whole territory of residence of the ancient Aryans, comprising the whole of the former Soviet Central Asia and most of the territories of Iran and Afghanistan – from the Iranian Khorasan and northern Afghanistan, present-day Tajikistan and other Central Asian countries to China.

In this Nugmon Negmatov, for example, actively uses the term “small modern Tajikistan.” This expression as it fixes the territorial losses which, according to the historian, has suffered the Tajik people to create its current state. Probably a symbolic rejection of the evidence “inferiority” was Somoni monument in the central square of Dushanbe placed at its base map of the “great Tajikistan”, covering the above areas.

Against this background, it is inexplicable look regularly recurring series of statements of Tajik historians headed by Rahim Masov about the infringement of the Tajik people from the “pan-Turkic elite” in the People’s Republic of Bukhara and later in the Uzbek SSR. Masov himself performs with the thesis of “crowding out” of the cultural centers of Tajiks in mountain areas, and “assimilation” of Tajiks in Uzbekistan, which also has been “Uzbekization” after the national-territorial delimitation of Central Asia. In general, for all that is clearly visible tendency historically to justify the claim to “ancestral land of Tajikistan”, in particular, in Bukhara, Samarkand and the surrounding area.

Thus, in the opinion of Ayubzoda, “as a result of national demarcation Tajiks lost ancient city of Bukhara, Samarkand, Merv, Termez, Nasaf”, and “such a rich valley, as Surkhandarya and Fergana, Karshi, endless steppes, Shakhrisabz Jizzakh, etc. “. Tajiks, according Ayubzoda, “in its history, built more than 100 cities, and now had none of the city to make it their capital.”Academician Masov makes it even more far-reaching conclusions: “If these our centers, ie, Samarkand and Bukhara belonged to us, if they survived the political, economic, cultural foundations, then the tragedy of the 90s of the twentieth century occurred in Tajikistan would. ”

Naturally, this is a response from the Uzbeks. Line of argument is rather wide – from denying the identity of the Tajiks and the Aryans to the “establishment” of the Turks in Central Asia as “the original autochthonous” population, is writing about, for example, the Uzbek Academy of Akhmadali Askarov. At the same time making continuous attempts to write to the Aryans themselves Turks. True, the latter is more common for historians of Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan did not.

Uzbek historians are trying to narrow down the area as a “traditional” residence Tajiks, limiting its mountains of the Pamirs. And, for example, Professor Gogh places Khidoyatov area of ​​residence of people who called themselves Aryans, in the valleys of the modern Hindu Kush.Thus, in essence, otritsaetcya existence of so-called “plain Tajiks.” Tajiks as living within Uzbekistan, according to official doctrine, are part of one of the Uzbek people, speaking in two languages. Any discrimination of Tajiks in Uzbekistan, of course, is also denied. In Tashkent, on the contrary, strongly emphasize the “full support to the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic from the more developed of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic.” As a “gift” is interpreted to Tajikistan and send it in due time “Uzbek land” – Leninabad (now Sogd) region. (Tajiks in response lead figures showing the predominance of the original population in these areas-speaking Tajik).

Quite often, in Uzbekistan, sound and meaningful discussions about the fact that the Tajiks are no single ethnic group, representing a kind of “combination subethnos.” Followed by at least a meaningful reminder that this circumstance was the reason for the recent civil war. Finally, Tashkent has its own historical mythology, the leading pedigree of the current Uzbek government of the empire of Timur, too, at one time included the whole of Central Asia practically. However, in the “historic” dispute with the territorial overtones Tashkent was originally put on the defensive and forced more than “react” rather than “attack”. In this regard, much more active the Tajik side, in fact she feels aggrieved.

Rahmon plus “Aryanization” of the whole country

Perhaps the debate on the Aryan themes over time would be purely academic if, in the early 2000s, the Aryan research historians have not been picked up by the Tajik authorities, try the “Aryan” national idea. As the chief of the “true Aryan” declared himself President Emomali Rakhmonov (then Rakhmonov, not Rahmon), who published his “fundamental work” in two volumes – “The Tajiks in the Mirror of History. From the Aryans to the Samanids “(London – Dushanbe, 2000, 2002).

The essence of this creation is formulated in the question: “Do the various Turkic nations and tribes, thousands of years later became the territories of the former masters of the ancient Bactria, Sogdiana and Khorezm and stands today with their own nation states claim to historical and cultural heritage of the Aryans, some commonality with the Aryan peoples these edges? “The answers given are appropriate.

September 12, 2003 Tajik President issued a special decree that “in order to study and promote the contribution of the Aryans in the history of world civilization, the education of generations in the spirit of national consciousness, the development of relations between peoples and cultures” in 2006 proclaimed ‘Year of Aryan Civilization. ” Over time, organized many celebrations, and the streets are decorated with posters of Tajik cities, glorifying the Aryan roots of the Tajiks.

On the same banners sported the emblem, best known as the swastika or Hackenkreuz. True, Tajik officials, such as, for example, Muzaffar Azizov expert Ministry of Culture of Tajikistan, immediately made it clear that this is the “correct” swastika “Swastika – a solar sign, also known as a” sign of the Sun, “which is revered by the ancient Aryans. If the direction is from right to left, it means the wheel of life in the Buddhist religion, and if the opposite direction – the wheel of death. But some people took the wheel of death, and found their death here. ” In general, official Dushanbe strongly emphasized that advocated his “Aryan” has nothing to do with “Aryan” German Nazis.

However, some performances now Rahmon sometimes something very reminiscent. For example, one of his visits to the Tajik intelligentsia, in which he seeks to protect the spiritual achievements of the “Aryan cultural heritage” from the encroachments of “external forces, endowed with a fantastic ability of total destruction accumulated over centuries of spiritual and moral and cultural values ​​of the peoples of Aryan descent.”

Interestingly, the Aryan political motives in the work of Rahmon met with a very sympathetic attitude of those circles in Russia who do love to speculate about the Aryan past, say, the Slavs, as well as the “ancestral enemies of the Aryan.” This empathy can be traced, revealing a series of ultra-or even openly Nazi sites.

From the very same Tajikistan went direct appeals to the “Aryan brothers” in Russia, with reminders about “common Aryan roots.” The same academic Masov actively explained: “When we talk about Indo-Iranian, Indo-European peoples, we refer to the Aryans. There, and Slavs, and the Iranian-speaking peoples – Tajiks, Iranians, Afghans. ” What part of the Tajik parties to online forums are much more relaxed than the Academy, they often accompany their assurances of the “Aryan solidarity” anti-Semitic and, of course, anti-American attacks.

“Aria of the world unite! Write to me, the Slavs, the Tajiks, Ossetians, Ukrainians “- was thrown cry on forums one of the Tajik Internet users. True, that’s bad luck – Russian skinheads no feelings “Aryan solidarity” to the Tajiks do not have a head and give way to all the “black”, making no distinction between “Aryans” and “non-Aryans.”

Russia, however, in any case is not the main recipient of reminders about the general Aryan origin. There is another country where the “Aryan” the current Tajik regime are much more understanding.

Will it “The Iranian-speaking alliance”?

Need to overcome the harsh effects of civil war, the apparent lack of economic potential, even compared to some of the neighboring former Soviet countries, it is relative political stability, finally, the threat emanating from Afghanistan, Tajikistan predetermined active interest in the development of various integration projects, primarily in the former Soviet Union. Tajikistan joined the EurAsEC, CSTO and SCO.

However, with time in Dushanbe increasing attention has been given to finding alternative post-Soviet integration trends. There are many reasons, but among the top – the general inefficiency of the integration mechanisms of the CIS, Russia’s dissatisfaction, in particular, its position on the Uzbek-Tajik dispute over water resources and, of course, a long-standing distrust and conflict with the Turkic neighbors, especially with Uzbekistan. Tajik political analyst Rashid Ghani Abdullah explained the choices made by the Tajik leadership, “Dushanbe was disappointed in the process of economic integration held within the CIS. All of them were viable. Usually determines the basis for the add, but here the opposite happened – the economic interests gave way to political ambitions of the leaders of some countries. Caught in the energy and transportation isolation, Dushanbe began looking for exits. The country has broken the way to China now seeks to Iran. Hence the project put forward by the Tajik Persian dialogue. ”

Well understood and is another reason which has induced Dushanbe in 2006 to take the initiative Alliance of Afghanistan, Iran and Tajikistan, as ethno-cultural associations of relatives.Let us turn to the same Rashid Abdullah. In this case, it was a project of the Central Asian Union (CAC), put forward at the time the President of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev: “Tajiks to such integration – are a national death. This fusion of everything and everyone. The Central Asian countries are completely different in terms of economic and social development.At the same time, integration implies the emergence of supranational structures. We can be overwhelmed by netadzhikskim sea that surrounds us. ”

At the same time, the establishment at the August summit in Tehran (the third in a row – the first was held in July 2006 in Dushanbe, the second – the same place in March 2010), supra-national structures in the form of so-called Co-operation Council nor Rashid Abdullah, nor other supporters of Persian-language integration is not scary. On the contrary, its something in Dushanbe is just regarded as a guarantee “undissolved” Tajikistan in the surrounding Turkic “sea”.

Nevertheless, for all that ethno-cultural proximity of the three countries are actually great, in fact, many Afghans, Iranians and Tajiks say their culture united, most of the experts about the prospects of the “Alliance of Persian” was very skeptical. And not just because there is almost no concrete results. (So ​​far we know only about the intentions of joint transport and energy projects, such as the laying of a direct rail link between Iran and Tajikistan and the corresponding power line. In addition, there is some progress in the establishment of a joint three-way channel.) Case in the fact that, for all proximity of the three countries and peoples, which could be called a sister, they still share a lot.

Thus, in particular, the Pashtun elite of Afghanistan has a very complicated relationship with the Afghan Tajiks, which can not but reflect and respect the official Kabul to Dushanbe. Afghans have a complicated relationship with Iran and its neighbors – in Afghanistan, they considered to be too arrogant. It is also important that the Iranians – Shiites, while the majority of Afghans and Tajiks – Sunni. In addition, the Iranian Shiite regime – a sworn enemy of the Taliban, Hamid Karzai, and still hopes to bring to the dialogue “moderate” wing “Taliban”. And, finally, agreeing to enter into any more or less real union with Iran, Karzai immediately lose the support of the U.S. and the West. The Americans, considering the regime of Tehran mullahs sponsor of terrorism, of course, will prevent the establishment of the “Alliance of the three.” And Russia is very jealous regard to the occurrence of post-Soviet countries in integration associations without their participation is unlikely to experience a special delight of the Persian dreams Dushanbe. Therefore, a full-fledged alliance between the three states are likely to fail. While individual projects may in principle be implemented.

Greetings from Tehran

Much more promising is a purely bilateral rapprochement of Tajikistan and Iran. In Dushanbe, have always regarded Iran as a counterweight to Russia and at the same time as a potential guarantor of political stability and economic sponsor. Feeling in the region to be relegated to the back, Tajikistan, having neither economic nor political, nor military power, while at the same time interested in that, in some measure to participate in the great game unfolding in Central Asia, and learn from this additional benefits. One of the areas of participation may be considered assistance to Iran in the output of the isolation in which he was due to its nuclear program. Several years ago, President Rahmon made a kind of intercessor on Iranian affairs, saying that Iran is ready to support his desire to become a member of the SCO.

Naturally, Dushanbe sees in Tehran and the defender of the notorious “pan-Turkism”. No wonder, as emphasized in particular the Tajik political and W. H. Dodihudoev Niyatbekov, ideological basis of special trust in the relationship between the two countries again is the fact that the “modern Islamic Republic of Iran and Tajikistan – are direct descendants of the once united the Aryan civilization” .

Speaking of ideology, in Dushanbe will not see any problem in the fact that in Iran – a theocratic regime, and Tajikistan – a secular state. That point of view Rashid Abdullah: “Tajikistan is far from being a secular state. Tajik society is rapidly moving away from the Soviet ideals, which were inherent in him as far back as 1990. Are currently developing processes that enable Tajikistan to overcome ideological incompatibility with its southern neighbor. ”

In Tehran the “Aryan” passages from Dushanbe perceived very favorably. Especially that “Aryan” racial superiority complex and in relation to the Semites and Turks present in the Persian national mentality almost from the time of the same Achaemenids. Only now he Tajikistan Iranians consider a rather peculiar plane – in this country believe Tehran is only part of the “Great of Iran”, which should include all countries with the Iranian-speaking population.

Tajikistan has already promised economic patronage – Tehran has expressed willingness to not only help in the construction of several hydroelectric power plants, but also plans to participate in the laying of railways and roads, creating a free economic zone. In general, however, despite attempts to Dushanbe to demonstrate “well-being in economic relations with Iran,” experts believe that in reality the situation is far from being. Thus, in particular, has not yet completed the Iranians sponsored construction of the tunnel “Istiqlol” the pass “Anzob” on highway “Dushanbe-Khujand-Chanak,” although the official opening ceremony hastily performed in 2006. In Tajikistan has not yet received the promised $ 6 million in Iran, there are other “misunderstandings.” But Tehran is showing strong interest in investing in development of possible uranium deposits in the Pamir Mountains, as well as military cooperation.

It seems that Iran’s economic presence in Tajikistan is not subject to recovery of economic benefit, but only the main objective – to strengthen their religious, ideological and political influence in the country. The main component of the indoctrination of the Tajik population was all the same “Aryan”, but in its “pure Iranian” version. (In “Tajik version” of, say, Rahmon, modern Iranians – a kind of “secondary” Tajiks, at first, lost the “right” and Farsi speaking a dialect of Arabic, and then returned to him through the Tajik language.) In the mass consciousness introduced the idea that the Iranian culture – part of the spiritual life of the Tajiks their own cultural and historical heritage. In principle, this is true, but because the gradual spread of Iranian culture is understood as a return to the Tajiks their own roots.

The task of rapidly increasing political and cultural influence of Iran in Tajikistan are increasingly associated with the promotion and Farsi. His study is being promoted in the Tajik education system. It turns out a big help educational literature, organized training programs for teachers, students, internships Iranian scholars. Iranian money on the construction of several large libraries, equipped with Iranian cultural centers with courses of study Farsi.

One is located in Dushanbe (the Iranian Cultural Center, which operates with the support of World Charitable Committee named after Imam Khomeini “Imdod” and the Aga Khan IV), the second – in the north – in Khujand. He has been working since the summer of 2010, there are classes in Farsi, Iranian history and culture. Ubiquitous and very significant Islamic component: a lot of attention is paid to free the fundamentals of the Koran.

Another channel stands Iranian ideology can be considered as providing quota for Tajik students learning in Iranian universities. Today in Iran according to official data trained over 400 citizens of Tajikistan, over thousands of Tajiks are studying in Iran, individually, and therefore not taken into account and not under the control of the Tajik authorities. According to the Tajik law enforcement agencies, most of them left for Iran on the invitation of individuals who often are members of radical Islamist organizations. Clearly, for what purposes and who can use these young people. And anyway, it’s hard to imagine the consequences of mass processing Tajik youth in the spirit of the dominant ideology in Iran – this explosive mixture of eschatological ideas of the world and the Iranian Islamic revolution “Aryan.”

Thus, we can talk about real cultural, ideological, and, ultimately, political expansion of Iran in Tajikistan. As a result, the country is actively formed pro-Iranian tuned layer of the population.Moreover, according to some experts, Iran has managed to introduce his people to a system of government and party structure, including the opposition. In addition, in recent years has been an increase in the number of adherents of Shiism.

Iran’s interest in the development of military-political cooperation with Tajikistan, many analysts tend to regard as an attempt to create there own military and political foothold. Rapprochement with Iran, Tajikistan can greatly hinder the actions of international forces in Afghanistan and to gain control of vast areas of the country, populated by Tajiks.

The attention of international observers is gone, and the fact that during the January visit to Dushanbe President Emomali Rahmon, Ahmadinejad expressed support for “peaceful nuclear program of Iran.” It is also significant that it is in Dushanbe, Ahmadinejad struck sharply criticized Russia for its consent to be bound in case of need for anti-Iranian sanctions. In this case no response from the Tajik leadership, seems to be associated with Moscow loosely, not followed. Equally clear drift toward Iran could block the channel multi-million dollar subsidies to western Tajikistan. A too obvious disloyalty Moscow involuntarily calls to mind the sad fate of President Kurmanbek Bakiyev. So far, however, the Kremlin visible signals of acute dissatisfaction with Rahmonov has not followed, but in Dushanbe have been rumors about the “involvement of Russian secret services” to the sensational escape of convicted rebels from Dushanbe detention center.

Someone from Western analysts said that tying such a whirlwind romance with Tehran Rakhmonov cuts the branch on which is sitting. And at once from two sides.

The new “Osh” next?

Recently, the international media began to report that in Tajikistan, especially in some parts of the country, has increased tension between Tajiks and Uzbeks. Some observers indicate folding of the explosive situation, similar to the situation in southern Kyrgyzstan in the early summer of this year. In the Uzbek media also explicitly states that leads to an increase in tension “Aryan” politics of the Tajik leadership, “the mass discrimination of the Uzbek-speaking part of the local population, which increases with the deployment of a national scale, the racist anti-Uzbek campaign.” Moreover, the Tajik leadership is accused of long-term “scientific training” to “impending massacre” in which Rahmon “officially declared the Fuhrer of the Aryans of the world, and the Uzbeks and the” other Turks “openly declared racially inferior nation.”

In Uzbekistan, the Tajik official did not believe claims of innocence to the tragedy in southern Kyrgyzstan, and, judging by some of the publications are considered “well documented” part of the Tajik militants in Osh events and “facts support the Tajik security forces combat training units of the” true Kirghiz ‘on Tajik territory and supplies their arms. ” Hence the conclusion: in Kyrgyzstan was a “dress rehearsal for future genocide Uzbeks in Tajikistan”, which will lead to much more serious consequences than the events in Osh.

Unqualified noteworthy recent article already mentioned Professor G. Khidoyatova devoted to the threat of ethnic “cleansing” in Tajikistan, which emphasizes the connection between the Tajik and Iranian “Aryan.” Khidoyatov, in particular, writes: “Even zaroastriytsy preached the cult of the war against the Semitic peoples, that is, Arabs and Jews, as well as the Turkic peoples, treating them as the main obstacle on the path to world domination race … The current leadership of Iran is Shiite bitter struggle against Israel considering it as a state that must be destroyed along with his people. It denies the Holocaust, believing that the Nazis were thus warned the Aryan peoples of the Semitic threat. Detachments “Hezbollah” have become a tool of Iranian Aryans against Israel. They are a source of terrorism and endless wars in the Middle East. ”

In this context, it is a very interesting appeal to Russia: “Iran is arming. Years through ten years it will have nuclear weapons. Russia supports Iran, ignoring the danger that the Aryan ideology has for its strategic partners – Azerbaijan and Armenia. But Russia, at the same time arming and Tajikistan … How can we talk about the “Commonwealth” and equip a state with claims to the territory of another member of the “Commonwealth” and with delusions of racial superiority? Do not know about Russia strategic partnership of Tajikistan and Iran? Is Russia really knows who is behind the Iranian Alliance of State? Is Russia knows about claims of the ideologues of the ultra-Tajik to Samarkand and Bukhara? ”

Of course, we must make allowance for the fact that all these estimates and projections made by the Uzbek side, but because they can not be completely objective. I would like to believe that the worst will happen, but the situation is very alarming. One thing is clear: when, if we use the expression of the same Mr. Khidoyatova, “the problem of the Samanids of scientific and historical turns into a historical and political problem,” nothing good can not be expected. In fairness it should be noted that the Uzbek historians, including himself Khidoyatova very actively contributed to this transformation.

Ethno-cultural affinity – an objective thing and very important. It can be very effective to promote cooperation between the related countries and peoples. Just do not use it for aggressive inventing myths designed to be the basis of various political and geopolitical projects. History testifies that attempts to implement and pan-German and pan-Slavic and pan-Turkic project ended very sadly, including for their initiators. Why do paniranskomu or some “novoariyskomu” project is doomed fate of another?

Michael Kalishevsky